2902: TECHNOLOGY OF HACCP-BASED, CHILLED FOOD PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

Detailed Table of Contents

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Chapter 1: Pasteurized-Chilled (Minimally Processed) Foods vs. Commercially Sterilized Foods
Introduction
Commercially Sterilized Foods
Pasteurized-Chilled (Minimally Processed) Foods
What are minimally processed foods?
Sous vide / Chilled Foods
Storage Stability
Two Basic Packaging Aspects for Chilled Foods:  Package-Cook or Cook-Package
The History of Chilled Food
Chilled Food Production Factors
 
Chapter 2: Total Quality Management vs. Government Regulations
Management:  The Critical Factor in Quality
Total Quality Management
Government Regulatory Agencies
Regulating Quality
Regulating Safety and Fraud
ISO 9000 and ANSI/ASQC Q91-1987
Outline of ISO-9000 Development Standards
The Malcolm Baldrige Award for National Excellence
American Society for Quality Control
Institute of Food Technologists
International Association for Food Protection
 
Chapter 3: What Is HACCP-Based Total Quality Management?
Total Quality Management (Company Wide Quality Improvement)
Quality Control, Quality Assurance, and Quality Improvement
Customer Satisfaction
Total Quality Management Cycle
Management Process
Food Processing Policies, Procedures, and Standards
Retail Food Policies, Procedures, and Standards
The Defect Prevention Process
Employee Certification
Organization for Total Quality Management
The Problem-Cause-Removal-Prevention Process
Total Quality Management Team
Problem Solving Documentation
The HITM 10-Step Total Quality Management Program
Fundamentals for Achieving Quality-Assured Performance
 
Chapter 4: What Is HACCP?
HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points)
History of HACCP
Terms and Definitions Used in HACCP-Based Operations
Hazards in the Food System
What Documents Should be Used to Provide the Fundamental Guidance for a HACCP Plan?
NACMCF HACCP
NACMCF-Adapted Generic 5-column HACCP Plan
Food Operations Risk Management
Codex Alimentarius HACCP
USDA HACCP
FDA Fisheries HACCP
FDA Commercial Food Process HACCP
FDA Retail HACCP Principles Guide
HITM Retail Food HACCP-TQM
Food Process Hazard Control Guidelines
Menu HACCP Categorization with Examples
QA Recipe Flow
Chicken Cacciatore QA Recipe Flow
Quality-Assured HACCP Recipe Procedures
HITM Principles of HACCP
Concepts Underlying HACCP
Questions to Ask and Information to Gather When Doing a Hazard Identification Safety-Assured Product Process Analysis
What is Hazard Analysis?
HACCP Assumes that the World is Always Contaminated
Foods Associated with Foodborne Illness Incidents
What Hazards Must Be Controlled?
What Is a Critical Control?
HACCP, A Pre-Control Process
Regulatory Inspections
Critical Control Points in the Sequence of Illness, Disease and Injury Causation
Summary
 
Chapter 5: The System for HACCP-Based Food Safety Assurance
Safety:  A Part of Quality
Safety Assurance
The System for HACCP-Based Food Safety Assurance
Hazards and Controls in Retail Foodservice, Market, Vending, and Home
Hazards and Basic Controls in the Food Environment
Error-Cause-Prevention Analysis for Foodservice Foodborne Illness Prevention
Foodborne Illness Hazards and Control Policies, Procedures, and Standards for Pasteurized-Chilled Food Systems
Development of Motivated Employees to Error-Free Task Performance
 
Chapter 6: Pathogenic Substances in Food
Reports of Foodborne Outbreaks
Foodborne Illness Factors
How to Determine Whether a Food is Hazardous
Types of Illness from a Control Viewpoint
Pasteurization vs. Sterilization
Pathogenic Substances in Food and Water
Estimated Number of Foodborne Illness Cases
Major Hazards Associated with Food Groups
Documented Foodborne Outbreaks and Vehicles of Transmission
National Research Council (NRC) List
Organisms Grouped by Hazard Severity
Foodborne Illness Thresholds and Quality Levels
Complications Observed After Illness
 
Chapter 7: Nutrition and Nutrition Retention
Dietary goals
Dietary Guidelines, 2005
Nutritional Labeling
Compliance
Thermal Processing and Its Effect on Food
Optimizing Nutrient Retention During Thermal Processing of Food
Time-Temperature Sterilization
Stability of Nutrients
 
Chapter 8: Events that Lead to Foodborne Illness and Injury
Cause Analysis
Factors that Contribute to Foodborne Outbreaks
Events Leading to Foodborne Illness in the United States, 1973-1982
Analysis of the Factors that Cause Foodborne Illness and Injury
Components of Food Hazard Analysis
 
Chapter 9: Separating Process and Product Attributes and Variables Into Safety, Regulatory, and Quality Attributes and Variables
Process and Product Attributes and Variables:  The Key to QC, QA, and QI
Government vs. Industry Control
Safety, Regulatory, and Quality Attributes and Variables
Sensory Evaluation of Food
Recipe Attributes
Classes of Defects
Control Charts
Reacting to Control Charts
Out of Control Symbols
 
Chapter 10: Sampling:  To Determine the Performance of the System
Normal Contamination
Guidelines and Standards
Finished Product Sampling
Two-Class Plan
Three-Class Plan
 
Chapter 11: Step By Step Flow Diagramming:  Analytical Description of a Process
System Description
Flow Diagram
Step Operations
Recipe Process Flow Charting
Flow Process Action Words
Step Description
HACCP Procedures Worksheet
Quality Improvement
QA (Quality-Assured) Recipe Flow
Quality-Assured Recipe Procedures (QARP)
Barley Soup QA Recipe Flow
Barley Soup (QARP)
Cream Celery Soup (QARP)
Beef Stew (QARP)
Vegetable Chowder
New England Clam Chowder (standard recipe)
New England Clam Chowder QA Recipe Flow
English Beef Broth (standard recipe)
English Beef Broth QA Recipe Flow
Chicken Cacciatore (standard recipe)
Chicken Cacciatore QA Recipe Flow
Chicken Cacciatore (QARP)
 
Chapter 12: Developing a Zero-Risk Process through Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
Hazard (Quality) Control
Predictive Hazard Evaluation and Risk Reduction
Risk Equation
Risk Control
Checklist
Behavioral Change Program
Retail Food Operation Food Hazard Control Checklist
 
Chapter 13: Foreign Objects in Food
Foreign Materials in Food
Classification of Hard Foreign Objects in Food
Food Defect Action Levels
Control of Hard Foreign Objects in Foods
Loss of Business
Legal Impact
 
Chapter 14: Toxic and Chemical Hazards and Controls
Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs
Intentional Additives
Incidental Additives
Toxic Containers
Effects of Aluminum
Toxic Metal Control / Backflow Prevention
Adverse Reactions to Food
Allergic Mechanism
Anaphylactic Shock
Foods Responsible for Allergic Reactions
Case Histories
Medication and Medical Treatment
Avoidance is Best Control
Legal Implications
Food Labeling
How a Retail Food Supplier Can Deal with This Problem
 
Chapter 15: Temperature Measurement and Control
Types of Temperature Measuring Devices
Calibration
Measuring Temperatures of Food During Cooking to Verify Pasteurization
Measuring Performance of Equipment
Measuring Temperatures in a Container
Selected Thermometer Specifications
 
Chapter 16: The Microbiological Principles of Hazard Control
Hazard Level
Microbiological Factors
Foodborne Illness Agents Grouped for Foodservice Control
Thermal Destruction
Microbiological Factors
Human Sources of Pathogens
Food Cooking Temperatures
Food Pathogen Control Data
Food Cooling Microbiology
Cooling Standards
Refrigerated Food Holding
Salmonella spp. Growth in Cooked Beef During Cooling
Slow Cooking Roast Beef
Growth and Survival of Clostridium perfringens in Beef During Heating and Cooling
 
Chapter 17: Raw Ingredient Hazards and Controls
Contaminated Ingredients
Potential Pathogens in Food
Shellfish Hazards (Oyster, Clams, and Mussels)
Fish Parasites (Roundworms, Tapeworms, and Flukes
Fish Toxins and Poisons
Mushroom Hazards
Pork
Egg Hazard Analysis and Critical Controls
 
Chapter 18: Hazard Control with Acids
Introduction
Government Regulations for Commercial Production of Acidified Foods
Definitions
Other Definitions (not in the regulations)
Products That Are Not Acidified Foods
Definition of pH
The Relationship Between pH and Hydrogen Ion Concentration
Antimicrobial Spectra of Organic Acids Used in Food
Data on the pKa, Solubility, and the Use of Organic Acids and Esters as Food Preservatives
Measuring pH
Limits of pH Allowing Growth of Various Microorganisms
Destructive Activity of Weak Organic Acids
Salad Dressing Characteristics
Salmonella Inhibition
Clostridium botulinum Inhibition
The Use of Acid in Typical Classical Recipes
Shelf Life of Dressings
Approximate pH of Foods and Food Products
pH Table
 
Chapter 19: Water Activity - Application to HACCP
Definition of Water Activity (aw)
Moisture Sorption Curve
Water Activity Growth Limits
Water Activity of Foods
Solutes
Water Activity in Frozen Foods
Effect of Low Relative Humidity
Control of Water Activity
 
Chapter 20: Microbiological Growth
The growth problem
Determining Growth Rates
Calculating Growth Rates
FDA Food Code Recommendations
Adjusting Calculations to the Cold Food Hold Guidelines
Range of Temperatures for Growth of Foodborne Pathogens
Use of Reported Generation Times for Predicting Growth of Pathogens
Generation Times for Aerobic Bacteria in a Variety of Foods
Generation Times for Listeria monocytogenes in a Variety of Foods
Generation Times for Staphylococcus aureus in a Variety of Foods
Generation Times for Salmonella spp. in a Variety of Foods
Generation Times for Yersinia enterocolitica in a Variety of Foods
Generation Times for Clostridium perfringens in a Variety of Foods
Times for Production of Toxin by Clostridium botulinum in a Variety of Foods
Summary of Generation Times of Pathogenic Bacteria in a Variety of Foods
Calculated Rate of Multiplication of Various Bacteria in Food
Energy of Activation
Low Temperature Spoilage
Discussion
Conclusion
Microbiological Multiplication Calculator
 
Chapter 21: Microbial Inactivation
Microbial Inactivation
Selecting Microorganisms
The Experimental Process for Determining Kill
Angelotti's Experiments
Determination of Upper Temperature Growth Limits
Determination of Inactivation
Destruction of Salmonella enteritidis
Calculating Death Rates (Destruction Values)
USDA and FDA Pasteurization Guidelines / Standards
Minimum Process Time
Comparison of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 D-values
Pork Standards
Poultry Standards
Milk Pasteurization
Egg Pasteurization
Pasteurization Standards Summary
Compilation of Salmonella spp. D-values
Compilation of Staphylococcus aureus D-values
Compilation of Listeria monocytogenes D-values
Summary
Appendix
Survival of Salmonella enteritidis in Food Products Containing Raw Eggs
 
Chapter 22: Calculating the Total Lethality of a Pasteurization Food Process
The Concept of Total Lethality
Pasteurization and Storage Stability of Hamburger Broth
A Typical Pouch Cooking Curve
Total Lethality Calculation
Food Pasteurization Lethality Plot
Calculating the Integrated Lethality of the Pasteurization Process
Kettle Cooking
 
Chapter 23: Food Cooling
Introduction
Thermal Properties of Foods
Food Geometry
Plotting a Cooling Curve – "Standardized Cooling Plot Curve"
Cooling Standards (USDA, FDA)
Cooling as Influenced by Air Flow in Refrigeration Units, Tumble Chillers, Containers and Types of Shelving
Steps for Calculating Refrigeration Capacity
Cooling Progressively
Cooling Times
Comparison of Rapid Chilling, Rapid Blast Refrigeration, and Rapid Freezing Methods
Time Temperature Relationships and Load in Refrigerator During Chilling
Turkey Cooling
Sliced Turkey Cooling
Water Filled Kettle Cooling
Chilled Water Bath Cooling
Food Cooling (Simulated Gravy)
Effect of Container on Cooling Rates
Effect of Airflow and Evaporation on Cooling
Effect of Stirring / Not Stirring
Blast Chilling vs. Blast Freezing
Cooling Methods -- 6 Hours to 41°F (5°C)
National Sanitation Foundation Refrigerator and Freezer Standards
Refrigerator Cooling Capacities
Blast Cool Refrigeration
Cold Pan Specification
Retail Refrigeration Merchandisers
Summary
 
Chapter 24: Personal Hygiene
Introduction
Humans as a Source of Pathogens
Fingertip and Hand Washing Must be Enforced by Management
Foodborne Diseases of Human Origin
Microorganisms on and in the Body
Importance of Effective Hand Washing
Effective Hand Washing
Comparison of Hand Disinfectants and Unmedicated Hand Soaps and Detergents
Drying Hands
Preventing Contamination from Hands
Glove Use
Personal Hygiene Training
Hand Infections and Bandages
Summary
A Summary of Control Standards for Hand Washing and Personal Hygiene for Food Production and Foodservice Personnel
 
Chapter 25: Cleaning and Sanitizing
Purpose of Cleaning
Control of Surface Microorganisms - Biofilms
Dry Cleaning
Effective Cleaning and Sanitizing
Types of Soil
Cleaning Agents (Soaps and Detergents)
Water
Cleaning Systems
The Four-Step Sanitizing Process
Sanitizers
Types of Chemical Sanitizers
Concentration Test Kits
Comparison of Sanitizers
The Surface Sanitizing Process
Equipment Cleaning and Sanitation
Mechanical Dishwashing - HACCP Principles
Floors
Checking a Surface for Microorganisms
Microbiological Sampling
 
Chapter 26: Specification of the Process and Products (Recipe Development)
Goals
Product Safety
Recipe or Formulation Attributes
Chilled Food Recipe Development
Factors for Improved Quality Assurance and Shelf life Extension
Temperature
Shelf life Testing
Specifying the Maximum and Minimum Capacities of the Process
Labeling
 
Chapter 27: Ingredients
Ingredient Quality Specifications
Ingredient Microbial Specifications
Acid Ingredients
Bacterial Cultures as Microbial Antagonists
Water Activity
Eh (Oxidation-Reduction Potential)
Specified Ingredients
Microbial Antagonists
 
Chapter 28: Food Thawing
Microbial Growth During Food Thawing
Microbial Growth During Thawing of Frozen Whole Eggs
Agitated Water
Dielectric Heat
Thawing and Refreezing
Inactivation of Microorganisms in Temperature-Abused Products
Illustration of Approved FDA Methods
 
Chapter 29: The Pasteurized-Chilled Food Processes
Introduction
Temperature Guide
Recipe Hazard Evaluation
Chilled Foods
Spoilage
Freezing Food Extends Shelf life -- Must be Thawed
Package-Pasteurize vs. Pasteurize-Package
Seven Recipe Processes
USDA-Specified Chilled Food Processes
HACCP Flows of Chilled Food Processes
Frozen Products
Testing a Recipe to Find Its Critical Failure Points
Hazard Analysis and Control Guidelines for the Production of Chilled Foods
 
Chapter 30: Heating Equipment
Three Basic Types
Temperature Measurement
 
Chapter 31: Hot Holding HACCP
Preparing Food Ahead of Planned Service and Inadequate Hot Holding
Examples of Problems
Controls
Roast Beef
Patient Food Temperatures
 
Chapter 32: Cooling Equipment
Four Basic Types
 
Chapter 33: Food Serving and Transport
Display, Transport, Serve, Leftovers
Suggestions for Holding Hot Food Hot and Cold Food Cold During Transport and Service
 
Chapter 34: Facility and Environmental Quality Assurance:  A Basic Consideration in Facility Design
The Kitchen as a Food System
Kitchen Design and Food Handling Processes
Design Analysis
Air Gaps and Backflow Prevention
Construction HACCP -- Facility Construction, Fixtures, Lighting, Waste Disposal, and Cleaning System
Receiving HACCP -- Principles
Dry Storage, Freezer and Refrigerators Storage HACCP -- Temperature, Air Flow, and Cleaning Requirements
Cold Storage Requirements
Equipment HACCP - Quality Assurance Design Performance
Kitchen Design for Progressive Preparation and Service
Ice Machines
Summary of Kitchen Design for Progressive Preparation and Service
Other Quality Assurance Kitchen Design Characteristics
Appendix
Initial Foodservice License Evaluation
Purchasing Standards
Quality-Assured Recipe Procedures
Quality Assurance Food Facility Design Checklist
Cleaning and Sanitizing Schedule and Instructions
Examples of Typical Equipment to be Cleaned
Detailed Sanitation Procedures and Standards
Maintenance Schedule and Instructions
Pest Control Schedule and Instructions
 
Chapter 35: Controlled/Modified Atmosphere Vacuum Packaging
Functional Purpose of Packaging
Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
Vacuum Packaging
Simple Closure Without Air Exclusion
Microbiological Food Packaging Concerns
 
Chapter 36: Packaging Equipment
Packaging Terms and Materials
Packaging Properties Important for Chilled Foods
Closures
Cost
Storing Film and Packaging Materials
Checking and Sealing
Identification of Rejects
Clipping Rejects
Heat Seal Rejects
Film Characteristics
 
Chapter 37: The HACCP-Based TQM Development Process
Plan
Organize
Operate and Exercise Self-Control
Inspect, Measure, Analyze and Improve the System and Processes
 
Chapter 38: The QA Office and Laboratory
Quality Assurance Department Functions and Responsibilities
 
Chapter 39: Policies, Procedures, and Standards Manuals
Documenting a Process
Food Processing Plant Policies Procedures and Standards
Retail Food Operations Policies, Procedures, and Standards
Accountability
Reviewing and Updating
 
Chapter 40: Certifying a HACCP-Based Total Quality Management Program
Certification
Food Operation Hazard Control Report
Food Production and Processing System HACCP Checklist
Food System Quality Assurance (QA) Certification Criteria
Food System HACCP Evaluation Form
 
Chapter 41: HACCP-Based Total Quality Management
Purpose of An Industry-Focused Self-Control Program
The Employee -- The Ultimate Hazard Controller
The Role of the Regulatory Agency in a Industry HACCP-TQM Program
Correct Knowledge (Key Controls)
Control Principles for a Food Operation Self-Control Program
Summary
 
Chapter 42: Food Safety Commandments for HACCP-Based Safety and Quality-Assured, Pasteurized-Chilled Food Systems
 
Chapter 43: Summary
The Situation Today
Problem Prevention
 
Appendix A: Conversion Charts 
Temperatures
Volumes and Weights
 
Appendix B: HACCP-TQM Reference Sources
Books
Cookbooks
Publications from Professional Organizations
 
Appendix C: Materials and Equipment


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