· Employee hand washing:  Shigella spp. and hepatitis A reduction by 10-5 by use of fingernail brush and double hand wash.
· Water:  Pathogen control by water supplier.
· Insects and rodents:  Exclusion through cleanliness and construction.
· Food contact surfaces:  Surfaces cleaned and sanitized 10-5 to £ 2 CFU/cm2.


1. Expected threat level in raw food to be controlled:
     Salmonella spp.:  <10/g
     Listeria monocytogenes:  <1/g
     Staphylococcus aureus:  <100/g
     Clostridium perfringens:  <100/g
     Clostridium botulinum:  <0.01/g
     Bacillus cereus:  <100/g
  • Control of hard foreign objects. 
  • If meat, fish, or poultry is to be eaten rare or raw, the supplier assures and certifies safe pathogen levels. 
  • The producers / suppliers provide standard plate count data that prove they have a stable, HACCP-controlled process. 
  • Just-in-time delivery at <0F (<-18C) or 41F (<5.0C) maximizes freshness and minimizes pathogen multiplication. If food is maintained at <30F (1.1C), there will be no Listeria monocytogenesmultiplication.
2. Receiving: Some food and beverages will be contaminated and must be checked, sorted, trimmed. 
  • Food must be stored before temperature reaches 45F (7.2C) or 5F (-15C). Label with date. 
  • Damaged packages and cans of food are returned. 
  • Infested packages and defective products (moldy or spoiled foods) are returned.
3. Storage: <41F (<5.0C) <4 days. Limit surface mold by controlling aw.
  • At 41F (<5.0C) and <4 days, L. monocytogenes will be controlled to an acceptable increase of <1:16 (4 generations). Cut, chop <24 hours before use.
4. Pre-preparation and staging for production <24 hours before use. Cut, chop, wash fruits and vegetables. Weigh and measure. Keep temperatures <50F (<10C).
  • Clean-as-you-go prevents pathogen cross-contamination. Single hand wash 10-2 reduction. 
  • Control multiplication of L. monocytogenes to <1 additional generation. 
  • [Total L. monocytogenes multiplication is <1:32 (5 generations).] 
  • Fruits and vegetables are double washed to remove surface filth and reduce pathogens >100:1 (10-2).
5. Preparation: 
<41 to 130F (<5.0 to >54.4C) 
<6 hours 
Reduce Salmonella spp. 10-5 
Control C. botulinum, pH 4.6 
Control salmonellae, pH 4.1 
>130 to 45F (>54.4 to 7.2C) 
<15 hours 
Mix salads to maintain <50F (<10C)
  • Heat from <41 to >130F (5.0C to >54.4C) <6 hours to prevent multiplication of Clostridium perfringens
  • Food pasteurization for 100,000:1 (10-5Salmonella spp. reduction by temperature:
  • 130F (54.4C)–86.45 min.; 140F (60C)–8.65 min.; 
  • 150F (65.6C)–0.865 min.; 160F (71.1C)–0.0865 min. 
  • or by addition of sufficient organic acid to decrease the pH below 4.1 with a 2-day hold at 75F (23.9C). 
  • Cool food from 130 to 45F (54.4 to 7.2C) in <15 hours to control multiplication of C. perfringens
  • Prevent toxin production of Staphylococcus aureus when mixing salads by pre-cooling ingredients to 40F (4.4C) before mixing and then keeping the ingredients <50F (<10C) during mixing and use.
6. Finish production:
Serve at >130F (54.4C) safety

or >150F (65.6C) quality.

Package, chill, and distribute at 41 to 55F (5.0 to 12.8C) for <10 generations of pathogens.
  • Retain vegetable nutrients at >130F (54.4C) by serving in <30 minutes. 
  • Prevent cross-contamination from vegetative pathogens. 
  • Prevent customer abuse. Label: Consume within 2 hours, or begin cooling within 2 hours and cool to 41F (5.0C) in <15 hours. 
  • Warn consumers with a label that lists ingredients which might cause a food allergic reaction.
7. Food holding, leftovers, reuse:
Do not add fresh to old.
  • If stored at 30 to 41F (-1.1 to 5.0C), use in a time to control possible post-processing pathogen growth to <10 generations. 
  • If pasteurized food is stored at <38F (<3.3C), it can be held until spoiled. 
  • Since post-cooking contamination is controlled, reheating is not required as a hazard control.