by O. Peter Snyder
Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management
670 Transfer Road, Suite 21A
St. Paul, MN  55114
· Employee hand washing:  Shigella spp. and hepatitis A reduction by 10-5 by use of fingernail brush and double hand wash.
· Water:  Pathogen control by water supplier.
· Insects and rodents:  Exclusion through cleanliness and construction.
· Food contact surfaces:  Surfaces cleaned and sanitized 10-5 to £ 2 CFU/cm2.
1. Expected threat level in raw food to be controlled: 
     Salmonella spp.:  <10/g 
     Listeria monocytogenes:  <1/g 
     Staphylococcus aureus:  <100/g 
     Clostridium perfringens:  <100/g 
     Clostridium botulinum:  <0.01/g 
     Bacillus cereus:  <100/g
  • Control of hard foreign objects. 
  • If meat, fish, or poultry is to be eaten rare or raw, the supplier assures and certifies safe pathogen levels. 
  • The producers / suppliers provide standard plate count data that prove they have a stable, HACCP-controlled process. 
  • Just-in-time delivery at <0F (<-18C) or 41F (<5.0C) maximizes freshness and minimizes pathogen multiplication. If food is maintained at <30F (1.1C), there will be no Listeria monocytogenes multiplication.
2. Receiving: Some food and beverages will be contaminated and must be checked, sorted, trimmed. 
  • Food must be stored before temperature reaches 45F (7.2C) or 5F (-15C). Label with date. 
  • Damaged packages and cans of food are returned. 
  • Infested packages and defective products (moldy or spoiled foods) are returned.
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    3. Storage: <41F (<5.0C) <4 days. Limit surface mold by controlling aw.
    • At 41F (<5.0C) and <4 days, L. monocytogenes will be controlled to an acceptable increase of <1:16 (4 generations). Cut, chop <24 hours before use.
    4. Pre-preparation and staging for production <24 hours before use. Cut, chop, wash fruits and vegetables. Weigh and measure. Keep temperatures <50F (<10C).
    • Clean-as-you-go prevents pathogen cross-contamination. Single hand wash 10-2 reduction. 
    • Control multiplication of L. monocytogenes to <1 additional generation. 
    • [Total L. monocytogenes multiplication is <1:32 (5 generations).]  
    • Fruits and vegetables are double washed to remove surface filth and reduce pathogens >100:1 (10-2).
    5. Preparation:  
    <41 to 130F (<5.0 to >54.4C)  
    <6 hours  
    Reduce Salmonella spp. 10-5  
    Control C. botulinum, pH 4.6  
    Control salmonellae, pH 4.1  
    >130 to 45F (>54.4 to 7.2C)  
    <15 hours  
    Mix salads to maintain <50F (<10C)
    • Heat from <41 to >130F (5.0C to >54.4C) <6 hours to prevent multiplication of Clostridium perfringens
    • Food pasteurization for 100,000:1 (10-5) Salmonella spp. reduction by temperature:
    • 130F (54.4C)--86.45 min.; 140F (60C)--8.65 min.;  
    • 150F (65.6C)--0.865 min.; 160F (71.1C)--0.0865 min.  
    • or by addition of sufficient organic acid to decrease the pH below 4.1 with a 2-day hold at 75F (23.9C).  
    • Cool food from 130 to 45F (54.4 to 7.2C) in <15 hours to control multiplication of C. perfringens
    • Prevent toxin production of Staphylococcus aureus when mixing salads by pre-cooling ingredients to 40F (4.4C) before mixing and then keeping the ingredients <50F (<10C) during mixing and use.
    â OUTPUT
    6. Finish production: 
    Serve at >130F (54.4C) safety

    or >150F (65.6C) quality. 
    Package, chill, and distribute at 41 to 55F (5.0 to 12.8C) for <10 generations of pathogens.
    • Retain vegetable nutrients at >130F (54.4C) by serving in <30 minutes. 
    • Prevent cross-contamination from vegetative pathogens. 
    • Prevent customer abuse. Label: Consume within 2 hours, or begin cooling within 2 hours and cool to 41F (5.0C) in <15 hours. 
    • Warn consumers with a label that lists ingredients which might cause a food allergic reaction.
    7. Food holding, leftovers, reuse: 
    Do not add fresh to old.
    • If stored at 30 to 41F (-1.1 to 5.0C), use in a time to control possible post-processing pathogen growth to <10 generations. 
    • If pasteurized food is stored at <38F (<3.3C), it can be held until spoiled. 
    • Since post-cooking contamination is controlled, reheating is not required as a hazard control.
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