PURPOSE: The purpose of these guidelines is to identify the minimum competencies of a person, whether he/she is a regulator or not, who certifies to owners of retail food systems that their systems are capable of preparing and serving / selling food that will not make the consumer ill, or cause injury, disease or death, but will in fact nourish the wellness of the consumer.
INTRODUCTION: An important element of the long-term continuous improvement of the retail food industry is to establish competencies of those individuals who validate / certify retail food operations as capable of serving / selling safe food. Without standards at this point, there is no assurance of safety.
PERFORMANCE COMPETENCIES: The following is a list of the competencies required. They are extracted from the information in the references to the appendix. These references are the most appropriate ones currently available on this subject. It is intended that these competencies will next be used as the basis for an international certification examination, so that people who wish, can get proper recognition for their professional capabilities.
HOW TO USE THESE PERFORMANCE COMPETENCIES GUIDELINES: When a person is being selected to certify that the processes in a retail food system are capable of zero liability costs (no foodborne illnesses, injuries, and deaths), he/she can be evaluated using this list to assure that he/she will correctly perform a quality-assured analysis.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT TO THESE GUIDELINES: These guidelines
are subject to continuous quality improvement. Suggestions should be sent
to the editor, Dr. O. Peter Snyder, at the above address. All suggestions
should have appropriate references to the improved information so that
they can be quickly reviewed and incorporated when better facts are discovered.
Knowledge of the Overall
Foodborne Illness Problem
1. Be able to list types of consumer foodborne illnesses, diseases, and injuries and fraud that are demonstrated problems.
2. Be able to draw a systems chart of the retail food system.
3. Describe the steps in the process of doing a dose response of a group of consumers.
4. Discuss the current laws governing food safety in the United States.
5. Discuss how the current number of illnesses and death are currently estimated in the United States.
6. Discuss the economic cost of foodborne disease.
7. Discuss the U.S. program for the prevention of foodborne disease.
Retail Food System Risk Analysis
1. Must be able to:
Unit Hazard Analysis
1. Must know and then provide correct hazard identification and control information to the operator so that the operator has the capability of achieving zero food liability cost.
2. Be able to demonstrate in a commercial kitchen, any recommended food process hazard control procedure and scientifically prove it is effective. Must be able to discuss PV (pasteurization values), SV (sanitation values) and GV (growth values), show how to collect the data to calculate each, and how to calculate each.
3. Be able to analyze a food system and identify the hazard control strengths and weaknesses of its management, personnel, environment, facilities, equipment, supplies, processes, and consumer components.
4. Be able to specify or estimate the output of the system, the immune levels of the consumer, the tolerance levels of the consumer to illness, disease, injury, probable consumer food abuse, and possible sabotage.
5. Be able to analyze a process, including how to use equipment, that will convert the ingredient input to a safe output (reduce the hazards to a safe level) for less than 5-day or more than 5-day holding.
Unit Self-Control HACCP Program
1. Be able to analyze the contents of a unit policies, procedures, and standards operations, training, and improvement manual and certify that when the manual is used, the unit will be capable of future, stable, predicable performance.
Organic I & II
Chemical structures; reactive nature of elements and compounds; isolation techniques for elements and compounds as related to toxins and poisons, food additives; and functional properties of food components in relation to their roles as parts of complex biochemical systems and as modified by environmental and processing conditions.
Principles of engineering as related to the design of mechanical systenms used for the production, processing, and storage of food.
|Architectural Engineering||Principles of structural design used for buildings or areas housing food production, processing, and storage facilities.|
|Environmental Engineering||Principles of design and mechanical systems necessary for maintaining the environment (toxic waste disposal, sewage disposal, water treatment systems).|
|Computer Process Control||Use of computer technology in the production, processing, and storage of food.|
Fundamental concepts of biology (growth of living organisms).
|Growth and control of microorganisms in food, water, and the environment; microorganisms affecting the health of individuals and the community; use of cleaning and disinfecting compounds in food production and service areas.|
|Plant Biology||Fundamental concepts of plant physiology and development; plant-water relationships; classification and differences among fungi, algae, bryophytes, and vascular plants; plant-animal interactions; ecosystems ecology.|
|Animal Biology||Fundamental concepts of animal physiology, reproduction, development, and diversity; interactions between animals and the environment.|
|Human Anatomy and Physiology||Fundamental concepts of the gross and microscopic structure of the human body; function of cells, organs, and vascular systems.|
|Human Nutrition||Physiological function and metabolic fate of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals and their involvement in fulfilling requirements of the human body for maintenance, growth, and work.|
Fundamental concepts used for the production of plant products used for food.
|Animal Science||Fundamental concepts used for the production of ruminants (beef and dairy animals, sheep), porcine species, and poultry; products and animal by-products; effect on ecosystem.|
|Entomology||Fundamental concepts involved in pest management as related to insects, diversity and classification of insects; effect of insects on plants, animals, and the environment; methods of control.|
|Food Cooking / Processing
Meat and Poultry
Fish and Shellfish
Vegetables and Fruits
Fats and Oils
Milk and Dairy Products
Sauces and Gravies
Ethnic Foods (international recipes)
Sensory Evaluation of Food
Nutrient Retention / Loss
Basic understanding of the composition of foods; food commodities as affected by harvesting, growing, production, processing, storage, consumption, and disposal. Production of quality foods as defined by optimal safety, sensory characteristics, and nutrient content.
Production of ethnic foods for a variety of tastes and cultures.
Understanding of laws that apply to the production, labeling, safety, and service of food in the United States and throughout the world.
National, state, and local government agencies involved in regulating the sale and service of food products.
Principles of Management
Fundamental management techniques, processes, and skills required for successful business operations.
|Leadership (philosophy and ethics)||Leadership techniques, skills, and ethics used in working with various people in different organizations, businesses, and environments.|
|Basic Accounting||Fundamental principles of accounting (assembling of financial data, providing and projecting financial information) as it relates to businesses and government.|
|Statistics I and II||Fundamentals of experimental design, analysis of variance, regression, and statistical tests.|
|Business Law and Regulations||Ethical, economic, social, and political perspectives of the legal environment; constitutional law; administrative regulation; torts and product liability; contracts; employee labor laws.|
|National and International Business Associations||Fundamental principles and guidelines of organizations such as Codex, National Research Council, ISO 9000, etc.|
|Education Program Development||Principles of needs analysis; establishing performance objective; delivering instruction and managing instructional design.|
|Food Law and Regulations|
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