FOOD PRODUCTION POLICIES, PROCEDURES, AND STANDARDS
A. General production policy
B. Home prepared food
| 1. Inspection of incoming products
2. Substandard products
3. Food containers
4. Container disposal
| 7. Food storage areas
8. Stock rotation
9. Mixing old food and new food
10. Food storage times and temperature
11. Recommended times to cool food
12. Proper storage conditions
| 1. Potentially hazardous food
2. Hard foreign objects
3. Food pasteurization
4. Safe preparation of multi-portion, thick, more than 2-inch items
5. Leftover roasts or other thick items
6. Safe preparation of single portion, thin, less than 2-inch thick items
8. Sauces, soups, and beverages
| 9. Controlling growth of pathogens with acid ingredients
10. Fruits, vegetable, legumes, and cereals
11. Bread and bakery items
12. Hot combination dishes (casseroles, stews, etc.)
13. Cold combination dishes (salads and sandwich spreads
16. Frozen desserts
| 1 Food holding temperatures
3. Serving, packaging, and transporting
4. Salad bar
5. Handling food and money
7. Food tasting
8. Food causing allergic reactions
9. Standards of identity-packaged foods
| 10. Food labels of food packaged / sold in a food establishment
11. Bulk food that is available for consumer self-dispensing
12. Bulk unpackaged foods such as bakery products and unpackaged foods that are portioned to consumer specification
13. Carry-out and banquet food
14. If food falls on the floor
| 1. Food cooling time
2. Storage to prevent cross-contamination
3. Storage time
4. Storage containers
6. Unwrapped food
7 Work station cleanliness
8. Frequency of surface sanitation
| 9. Serving utensils and cutting boards
10. Beverage dispensing equipment
11. Milk product dispensers
12. Dispensing tableware and flatware
13. Self-service food, dishes, and utensils
14. Table condiments
15. Ice scoops
16. Food serving temperatures
A. General production policy. HACCP evaluations shall be conducted on all menu or production items. This evaluation will include times and temperatures for all food handling steps, beginning ordering, receiving and storage, preparation, staging for service, transport, service, and handling of leftovers.
B. Home-prepared food. No home-prepared or home-canned food shall be served or stored in the facility.
C. Milk. All milk and dairy products served and used in preparation of products will be grade A and shall come from a HACCP supplier who also complies with government pasteurization regulations. All fluid milk shall be served in an unopened container, not to exceed 1 pint, or shall be dispensed from an approved refrigerated bulk dispenser at less than 41°F (5ºC).
1. Inspection of incoming products. Delivery vehicles shall be inspected, and any product shall be rejected if the cargo area at the time of arrival is not at required temperatures of 0°F (-17.8ºC) or 41°F (5ºC), or cargo conditions were not appropriate for the food. Food cannot be more than 10°F (-12.2ºC) (frozen) or 41°F (5ºC) (refrigerated). All refrigerated and frozen items shall be stored at appropriate temperatures within 10 minutes of receipt before the product temperature increases more than 5°F (2.7ºC). All incoming food products shall be inspected for frozen or chill temperature damage, date codes, suspicious odors and drips, and pest infestation. All food shall be labeled on the side that will face front, with a use-by date to assure quality.
2. Substandard products. Managers/supervisors shall be notified of any substandard food item to determine if the product should be kept, discarded, salvaged, or returned to the supplier on the delivery vehicle. If discarded, it shall be recorded on the waste control report.
3. Food containers. Receiving personnel shall be alert for damage to cases or boxes of food that might indicate contamination from an outside source or insect and rodent infestation. Receiving personnel shall spot-check canned foods for pinholes, bulging, and rusting containers. Any cans of food with swells, flippers, leakers, corrosion, or dents on seams and rims shall be segregated (removed from use or storage area) and returned to the supplier(s) promptly.
4. Container disposal. All empty containers and packing boxes shall be disposed of promptly and properly in order to deprive pests of hiding and nesting places. All staples, plastic binders, and pieces of wire will be accounted for, in order to prevent these items from finding their way into foods as hard foreign objects.
5. Labeling. Labels of all stored food products shall be placed on the side of the container and facing front (rather than just the lids). All bulk food and food ingredient containers shall be labeled with the common name of the product. All packaged food and ice shall be labeled by the supplier with product name, name and address of the manufacturer, net weight, and ingredients in descending order of predominance.
6. Use-by date. Unused portions of opened food shall be stored in a tightly closed, approved, food grade bulk container with a label on the container. All perishable food shall have the date it was put in the container and a use-by date. Food will be used from the container until the container is empty or the use-by date has expired. Then the container shall be cleaned, sanitized, and refilled.
7. Food storage areas. All storage areas shall be kept clean and organized. Only food in a moisture-impervious container shall be stored on the floor. All other perishable food products shall be stored at least 6 inches above the floor on approved shelving or racks. Dollies may be used to transport bulk containers of food. Duckboards will not be used as food storage racks. Food shall not be stored in restrooms, locker and dressing rooms, or vestibules. Food shall not be stored under unprotected overhead sewer waste or water lines (except fire protection sprinkler heads). All stored foods shall be covered with plastic film, foil, or paper, except during periods of preparation and service.
8. Stock rotation. All incoming food shall be given a use-by date and stored so that the oldest food shall be used first. New inventory (cans, boxes, or cases) will be placed behind the older inventory. For highest quality, all food should be used before its code date expires. The Recommended Stock Rotation Chart to Assure Quality will be used as a quality guide for length of storage time. (Click here for full-page view of this table.)
Recommended Stock Rotation Chart to Assure Quality
9. Mixing old food
and new food. Old food shall not be mixed with freshly prepared
food beyond the accepted storage-use time at the maximum temperature of
10. Food storage temperatures and times. The values in the Maximum Holding Times at Specified Temperatures chart are based on anticipated contamination of food, if pathogenic bacteria in food are given sufficient time for a 10-generation multiplication (1:1,024). (Click here for full-page view of this table.)
Maximum Holding Times at Specified Temperatures
These values have also been
derived by comparing actual bacterial growth with FDA Food Code holding
guidelines for ready-to-eat food that allows 7 days if the food temperature
is at 41°F (5°C) or less, 4 days at 45°F (7.2°C), and 4
hours, for example when food is at 112°F (44°C). This chart
provides growth times for 1 and 10 generations of pathogens over the range
of 30 to 125°F (-1.1 to 51.7°C).
NOTE: Hot food shall be held above 130°F (54.4°C). To conserve nutritional value, food (especially vegetables) maintained above 130°F (54.4°C), should not be held for more than 30 minutes.
[The FDA Food Code recommends holding hot foods at or above 140°F (60°C)].
11. Use recommended times to cool food. The FDA Food Code recommends cooling food to 41°F (5°C) in less than 6 hours. However, Juneja et al. (1994) showed that food is safe if it is continuously cooled to less than 45°F (7.2°C) in less than 15 hours in a 38°F (3.3°C) driving force (air flow = 50 feet per minute).
Food safety control can also be extended with pathogenic microbiological growth inhibitors in the food such as aw and pH, or GRAS additives when shown to be effective by laboratory analysis. A HACCP recipe must be used in each case by the cook for control. The recipe must be approved by a person who shall certify the process as safe, such as a chilled food process authority.
12. Proper storage conditions. Freezer temperatures shall be maintained at less than 0°F (-18°C), with as little fluctuation in temperature as possible. During defrost, the freezer air temperature will not increase more than 10°F. Refrigeration units should stay below 41°F (5°C) during defrost. Temperature fluctuation must be minimized in order to achieve maximum shelf life for inventory items. Sufficient air flow around the inventory shall be assured by keeping items on open racks in refrigerated and freezer areas, away from the walls and off of the floor. Cook / chill storage shall be maintained at 28.5 to 32°F (-2 to 0°C). Dry storage areas shall be maintained at 50 to 70°F (10 to 21.1°C) and at 50 to 60% relative humidity.
1. Ingredient inspection and control. All ingredients shall be inspected as they are used in food preparation. Any ingredients that are off-color, have strange odors, appear to have bubbles when they should not, show evidence of insect or rodent contamination, or are suspect in any other manner shall be rejected and returned to suppliers or discarded. If there is any doubt about the safety of food or how it was prepared, it shall be thrown out. The suspect food will be shown to a manager or supervisor before disposal, and a record of this type of food disposal shall be written on the waste control sheet.
2. Food thawing. Thawing shall be accomplished by any one of the following methods:
a. In a conventional or rapid thaw refrigerator at 41°F (5°C).
b. Under flowing, potable water at a temperature of 70°F (21.2°C) or below, with sufficient velocity to agitate and float off loose food particles into the overflow.
c. In a microwave oven only when the food will be immediately transferred to conventional cooking facilities as part of a continuous cooking process or when the entire, uninterrupted cooking process takes place in the microwave oven or other conventional cooking process.
3. Chemical additives
• Sulfites and sulfates shall not be used in any food preparation, unless present as an ingredient in a commercial item.
• Monosodium glutamate (MSG) can cause illness in some people if used in excess. It shall be used at 0.5% or less on a weight basis. [For example, no more than 1/8 teaspoon (1.7 g) of MSG shall be used per 12-ounce portion (340 g) of food.]
• Any food containing yellow #5 shall be so identified on the menu to the customer. (If yellow #5 is used, it can cause allergic reactions in some people.)
• Nitrates and nitrites, if used in sausage manufacture, shall be used at a concentration of less than 200 ppm.
There shall be HACCP recipe procedures for the use of any food chemical in a recipe where there is any question of safety.
4. Raw food handling. After touching raw food and containers, and before touching ready-to-serve food, employees shall wash their hands to control cross-contamination.
5. Separate raw and cooked food. Raw and cooked foods shall be kept separate. Separate, freshly cleaned and sanitized cutting boards and knives shall be used for raw foods and for cooked foods. Equipment with any raw food contamination shall be cleaned and sanitized before it comes in contact with cooked food.
6. Food washing. All raw fruits and vegetables, after trimming, shall be thoroughly washed before preparation.
• Method: Put the vegetables / fruit in a colander and run a lot of flowing cold water over the vegetables / fruit for 1 minute. As an alternative, immerse the items in a sanitized sink of cold water kept flowing with an overflow pipe. Agitate for 15 seconds. A vegetable brush should be used when appropriate. Using a colander, transfer the food to a second sink containing an adequate supply of clean cold water and agitate once more. Drain items.
7. Cutting up raw food. Raw food shall be prepared in small enough quantities to maintain the temperature below 50°F (10°C) before it is returned to the refrigerator. Preparation shall not be done more than 24 hours in advance of use. Prepared raw food can be stored in containers up to 8 inches deep if the temperature is less than 50°F (10°C) when the container of food is returned to the refrigerator.
1. Potentially hazardous food. All food shall be considered to be potentially hazardous unless it has a pH less than 4.6 (to control the growth of Clostridium botulinum), an aw less than 0.86 (to control growth of Staphylococcus aureus), or is commercially sterilized and in a sealed, approved container. Food that is not heat pasteurized, such as salad dressings, shall have a pH of less than 4.1 to control and inactivate Salmonella spp. As an alternative, it will have a salt concentration in the water phase of more than 12% to control all pathogens. If chemicals are used for control such as acid or salt, the concentration shall be monitored when the product is formulated and daily during use.
Food that is hermetically sealed and stored at room temperature shall have been treated for an Fo of 1 [250°F (121.1°C) for 2.4 minutes] or acidified to prevent the multiplication of mesophilic, pathogenic microorganisms.
2. Hard foreign objects. Food shall be inspected for the presence of any extraneous material larger than 1/16th inch that could cause disgust, alarm, or injury to consumers. The following procedures shall be used to prevent or minimize the presence of hard foreign objects and other unwanted material in food.
• Keep can opener blades dull and replace them when they get sharp. When they are sharp, they cut the can rather than punch through, and make metal fragments.
• Wrap spice and herb seeds and leaves in cheesecloth bags before adding to food so they can be removed.
• Use big toothpicks with "pants."
• Inspect food for bones, bone chips, and glass.
• Account for all metal staples, twist-ties, and nails used in packaging, and remove all packaging material from products.
• Never use metal scrubbing pads for cleaning food utensils or food preparation work surfaces.
• Use metal ice scoops for getting ice from ice machine. Never use a glass to scoop ice.
• Wash fresh fruits and vegetables and inspect these products for the presence of insects and worms.
3. Food pasteurization. All cooked food shall be pasteurized according to the 7D Salmonella inactivation (destruction). The Food Pasteurization Table indicates the center temperature and the amount of time required at that temperature to reduce Salmonella in beef, pork, poultry, and fish by at least 10,000,000:1/g.
Food Pasteurization Table
The center temperature
in the thickest part of raw meat, poultry, and fish pieces must reach a
pasteurization temperature for an established period of time in order to
assure vegetative pathogen destruction.
If food is cooked for extended chilled storage (more than 14 days), the spoilage bacteria must be controlled. Therefore, the food must be cooked to >160ºF (typically 190ºF) for 15 minutes to achieve a shelf life of 45 or more days at <38ºF cold storage.
4. Safe preparation of multi-portion, thick, more than 2-inch items. In some cases, government regulations still specify higher end point temperatures. Unless there is specific government approval for a lower time-temperature standard, specified foods shall be cooked to government-specified temperatures.
Rare roast beef may be removed from the oven when the center temperature is above 130°F (54.4°C) and transferred to a hot holding device that is set at a temperature and at an adequate relative humidity to keep the center and surface temperature at 130°F (54.4°C) or above for times specified for adequate pasteurization.
Other meat, fish, and poultry must be kept in a hot holding device where the center temperature can be maintained above 130°F (54.4°C) for safety; 140°F (60°C) for regulations; and above 150°F (65.5°C) for customer satisfaction.
Slow-cooked food products with a starting center temperature of 41°F (5°C) shall reach 130°F (54.4°C) within 6 hours to prevent unnecessary growth of C. perfringens.
Commercial pre-cooked food such as beef, ham, poultry, and fish have come from approved sources and do not need to be heated to make them safe when removed from the package or can. They must be maintained at temperatures below 41°F (5°C) or heated and maintained above 130°F (54.4°C) for safety [140°F (60°C) for regulations] after removal from the container or package.
5. Leftover roasts or other thick items. It shall be the policy of this establishment to plan to not have any leftover roasts or other thick items because of the hazardous possibility of spore outgrowth in these thick items during cooling. To avoid negative customer comment if menu items are sold out, a statement similar to the following will be used, "We slow-roast our large cuts of meat for each meal to provide fresh, tender, moist meat throughout the day and evening. Cooking takes about 4 hours. We apologize if we run out. I would suggest ____________, which is excellent tonight."
If there are any leftovers from thick pieces of meat, they shall be cut into pieces less than 2 inches thick and chilled to 45°F (7.2°C) in 15 hours or less for safety. If a whole roast is to be cooled, a blast cooler will be used. If there are any leftovers from thick pieces of meat, they shall be cut into pieces less than 2 inches thick and cooled continuously to 41°F (7.2°C) or less within 6 hours for safety. If a whole roast is to be cooled, a blast cooler will be used.
6. Safe preparation of single-portion, thin, less than 2-inch thick items. The following procedures shall be used in order to meet public health codes as well as customer standards of quality.
• Raw, thin foods (chicken, fish, and hamburgers) are normally contaminated with high numbers of both spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. They shall be given an adequate time-temperature heat treatment to ensure destruction of pathogenic bacteria. These products shall be cooked to a minimum center temperature of 150°F (65.6°C) for 72.6 seconds according to the Food Pasteurization Table.
• Eggs. Because Salmonella enteritidis has been found to be present in the yolks and whites of USDA-graded eggs, shell eggs are a hazardous food. Shell eggs must be cooked until all parts reach a temperature of 145°F (62.8°C) for 15 seconds or purchased from a supplier whose flock is certified as Salmonella free.
Pasteurized liquid and dried eggs shall be used in the preparation of egg dishes and other menu items whenever possible to assure the safety of these products.
Raw shell eggs shall not be used in the preparation of uncooked, ready-to-eat menu items unless they have been produced from flocks of chickens that are certified by the supplier to be free of Salmonella spp. or are pasteurized.
• Raw beef. If beef is to be eaten raw, it must be ground from large fresh cuts held no more than 3 days at below 41°F (5°C) in the retail operation. The supplier must certify that when delivered, there are less than 100,000 Standard Plate Count (SPC) Colony-Forming Units (CFU) [86°F (30°C) incubation] per cm2 and less than 10 E. coli per cm2 on the surface when examined by the standard surface swab/sponge procedure. There shall be no detectable Salmonella spp. or E. coli (none/25 g sample).
• Poultry. Poultry shall be cooked until a center temperature of 165°F (73.9°C) is reached and held for more than 15 seconds. Dark meat may be heated to 185°F for tenderization.
• Fish and shellfish. These items shall be cooked to reach a center temperature of 145°F (62.8°C) for 15 seconds. If fish or shellfish are served raw, or if these products are cooked to less than 145°F (62.8°C), the supplier must certify that these fish and shellfish products have such a low pathogenic microorganism level that they are safe when eaten raw.
• Microwave ovens. When using a microwave oven, a thermometer shall be used to verify that all portions of the food have been pasteurized [cooked until all parts of the food have reached a temperature of 165°F (73.9°C) and held at this temperature for 2 minutes], or the food will be further heated in a hot-holding device to assure adequate heat penetration.
7 Batters. Batters shall be discarded at appropriate intervals that allow less than a 10-generation multiplication of spoilage bacteria.
8. Sauces, soups, and beverages. Stocks, soups and hot beverages will be held above 165°F for customer satisfaction [above 140°F (60°C) for regulations].
9. Controlling growth of pathogens with acid ingredients. Hollandaise and Béarnaise sauces shall be prepared safely with two critical controls.
• They shall be prepared with sufficient acid (normally 1 to 5% acid solution per egg yolk) to reduce the final pH to less than 4.1.
• In preparation, the egg yolks (after separation) will be mixed with the acid and then whipped in a double boiler so that the temperature of the egg yolks is raised above 150°F (65.6°C). This procedure assures instant death of any vegetative pathogens. Then, the butter can be added with absolute assurance that no vegetative pathogens have survived and that there is no potential for growth, because the pH is so low. If a cold sauce is to be prepared, the acidified eggs can be pasteurized the same way and then cooled and emulsified with the oil.
Other egg and heavy cream sauces that are not pasteurized, that do not tolerate continuous holding at 150°F (65.6°C), and that do not have a final acidity of less than pH 4.1, shall be made fresh at least every 2 hours.
Acid ingredients in mayonnaise prevent the growth of Salmonella spp. and other vegetative pathogens if the pH is less than 4.1. However, mayonnaise should be refrigerated to control spoilage.
10. Fruits, vegetables, legumes, and cereals. Fresh fruits and vegetables shall be double-washed in a clean sink in cold water [below 60°F (15.6°C)] to reduce surface contaminants (microorganisms, parasites, pesticides, insects, worms, and soil). The fresh fruit or vegetable items shall be put into the first clean, sanitized sink or bowl, which is filled with water. The items should be agitated in the water and then transferred to a colander in a second sink/bowl where clear water shall flow over the items as they are agitated for about 30 seconds. The food shall then be shaken or spun dried to remove excess water.
Fresh vegetables such as radishes, celery, parsley, and onions have very high spoilage bacterial counts. Fresh vegetable spoilage is partially controlled if very cold food refrigeration temperatures [above 35°F (1.7°C)] are maintained. If the temperature is below 38°F (3.3°C), there will be a control for Clostridium botulinum type E.
Cereals (e.g., rice) and legumes (e.g., dried peas and beans) are contaminated with spores and must be kept dry, or below 0.86 aw. After cooking, all vegetables such as green beans, baked or boiled potatoes, and cereals such as rice will have activated spores and shall be maintained at 130°F (54.4°C) or above, or cooled continuously to 41°F (5°C) or below within 15 hours [6 hours for FDA].
11. Bread and pastry (bakery items). Hazardous fillings and icings must be cooled continuously to 41°F (5°C) or below within 6 hours before being used in items such as eclairs or filled rolls.
When a hazardous topping such as an egg white meringue made with uncertified egg whites (i.e., not certified as Salmonella free) is baked or browned, the center temperature of the meringue and temperature at the interface of the pie and meringue shall reach 160°F (71.1°C) for more than 5.2 seconds. The filling must be placed in the shells or crusts while still hot, above 165°F (73.9°C). The topping is then added and the item baked or cooled. (This controls microbial contamination at the surface between the filling and pie topping.) After baking, the pie and meringue must be cooled continuously to 41°F (5°C) or below within 15 hours [6 hours for FDA].
12. Hot combination dishes (casseroles, stews, thick soups). When cooked or pre-cooked ingredients are combined and reheated, they shall reach a center temperature that achieves a 7D pasteurization in less than 6 hours.
13. Cold combination dishes (salads and sandwich spreads). All ingredients used in cold combination dishes shall be washed and prepared separately and kept at or below 41°F (5°C). All ingredients shall be pre-chilled before they are combined and shall be maintained at or below 50°F (10°C) during preparation. These products shall be prepared in small batches. A uniform flavor will be produced in these products if flavoring and spices are added to sauces or dressings before mixing all ingredients together. Leftovers shall not be used in cold combination dishes unless HACCP-approved recipes are used in the preparation of these items.
For best quality, cold combination dishes shall be used within 24 hours
14. Blanching. Water blanchers shall be cleaned every 4 hours when in use to prevent multiplication of thermophilic spoilage bacteria.
15. Reconditioning. Food, raw materials, and other ingredients that are adulterated shall be disposed of so as to protect against the contamination of other food. If adulterated food can be reconditioned, it will be done using a method that has been proven to be effective, or it will be reexamined and found not be adulterated, before being incorporated into other food.
16. Frozen desserts. Depending on the item, ice cream, sherbets, ices, frozen yogurt, etc., shall be maintained at -10 to 28°F (-23.3 to -2.2°C) for quality.
G. Holding, serving, and transporting
1. Food holding temperatures. Freshly prepared hot food shall be held at or above 130°F (54.4°C) for safety and cold food shall be held at a safe time-temperature to control bacterial pathogen multiplication to below 10 generations (e.g., 7 days at 41°F). Adequate and approved hot holding devices or cold holding devices shall be used to maintain potentially hazardous foods at correct temperatures during storage, preparation, transportation, and service.
2. Conveyors. Food transported by conveyors shall be protected to prevent hazardous contamination.
3. Serving, packaging, and transporting. Food shall be kept covered as much as possible to maintain surface temperatures and prevent surface dehydration. During transport, hot food shall be maintained above 130°F (54.4°C) for safety [140°F (60°C) for regulations] and cold food at a safe time-temperature. Since food open on a buffet or service line will be subject to evaporative cooling, the surface temperatures will be below 140°F (60°C), unless it is covered. Individual portions of food on a buffet line shall be at 150°F (63.6°C) for customer satisfaction and should be replaced with fresh portions every 20 minutes for quality. Casserole items should be replaced every hour for quality.
Food items in cold storage will be kept covered to prevent cross-contamination and surface dehydration. Cold items [below 41°F (5°C) when going on the line] will warm and must be used according to times listed in the food holding table (Maximum Holding Times at Specified Temperatures). Cold food shall not be displayed under hot display lights that warm the food surface.
4. Salad bar. Ice in non-refrigerated salad bars shall be filled to the level of food in the containers. Ice is not needed in mechanically refrigerated salad bars. Cold food items must be cold before being placed in the salad bar, because salad bar units are not designed to cool food. Cold food items will slowly warm to about 55°F (12.8°C) in the top layers in most salad bars. Therefore, leftover salad bar product shall never be added to fresh product beyond the safe time-temperature allowed. Leftover salad bar product(s) shall be used until the time and temperature are equivalent to 10 multiplications. Some of the leftover salad bar items (e.g., carrot sticks, chopped onions, celery sticks) may be used in a recipe (stews or soups) in the kitchen or packed into containers and sold as pre-portioned items, if still within the use-by date / time.
5. Handling food and money. Tongs, spoons, or paper wrappers shall be used to prepare and serve food whenever possible. While handling food with correctly washed hands and fingertips is safe, customers sometimes object. Customers consider it hazardous when food handlers touch money and food without hand washing. However, the FDA does not recognize this as a hazardous procedure.
6. Dishware. Personnel shall not touch food contact surfaces of dishware and serving utensils. Servers may touch the rims of plates, bottoms of glasses, and handles of cups and utensils. All dishware shall be double-checked for a clean, spot-free appearance before it is used. Any unsatisfactory dishware shall be returned to the dishwashing area. Dishware that is chipped, cracked, or surface-scarred must not be used. Defective dishware must be shown to the supervisor, who records the disposal of the item(s).
7. Food tasting. Each time a food is tasted, a clean saucer or clean disposable container and clean spoon or fork (plastic or metal) shall be used so that contaminants from the mouth will not get into the food. Personnel shall never dip their fingers into food in order to taste any prepared product.
8. Foods causing allergic reactions. A listing of all ingredients used in the preparation of food items shall be available to serving personnel so that they can correctly answer customer questions, if requested to do so, concerning the presence of possible allergenic substances in any food product. If ingredients are substituted in a recipe, employees shall be informed of the substitution.
Food has the potential for causing severe allergic reactions (possibly life threatening) in sensitized individuals. [For example, severe reactions in some individuals can be caused by ingestion of fish, nuts, wheat products (gluten intolerance), milk and dairy products (lactose intolerance), MSG, sulfites and/or yellow #5.] Employees shall be informed that this condition does exist in some individuals and of the importance of answering customer questions.
9. Standards of identity: packaged foods. Packaged food prepared, used, or sold by the facility shall comply with standard of identity requirements in 21 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) §131-169 and 9 CFR §319 Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition, and the general requirements in 21 CFR §130 - Food Standards: General and 9 CFR §319 Subpart A - General.
10. Food Labels of Food Packaged/Sold in a Food Establishment. Food packaged in a food establishment shall be labeled as specified in law, including 21 CFR §101 - Food Labeling, and 9 CFR §317 Labeling, Marking Devices and Containers.
Label information shall include:
- The common name of the food, or if absent a common name, an adequately descriptive identity statement
- If made from two or more ingredients, a list of ingredients in descending order of predominance by weight, including a declaration of artificial color or flavor and chemical preservatives, if contained in the food.
- An accurate declaration of the quantity of contents.
- The name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor.
- Nutritional Labeling as specified in 21 CFR §101 - Food Labeling and 9 CFR §317 Subpart B Nutrition Labeling.
11. Bulk food that is available for consumer self-dispensing shall be prominently labeled with the following information in plain view of the consumer:
- The manufacturer's or processor's label that was provided with the food; or a card, sign, or other method of notification that includes the information specified in labeling requirements for food in 21 CFR and 9 CFR as described in the above paragraphs.
12. Bulk unpackaged foods such as bakery products and unpackaged foods that are portioned to consumer specification need not be labeled if:
- A health, nutrient content, or other claim is not made.
- There are no state or local laws requiring labeling; and
- The food is manufactured or prepared on the premises of the food establishment, or at another food establishment, or a food processing plant that is owned by the same person and is regulated by the Food Regulatory Agency that has jurisdiction.
13. Carry-out and banquet food. The freshest possible food with the lowest bacterial counts shall be provided for carry-out service. Customers shall be told to keep hot food above 140°F (60°C), or keep cold food below 41°F (5°C), or to consume it within 2 hours and cool the leftovers. All catered food must be maintained above 140°F (60°C) or below 41°F (5°C).
14. If food falls on the floor, it will be discarded.
H. Storing prepared food
1. Food cooling time. Food can be cooled rapidly in less than 6 hours by panning the food less than 2 inches deep, covering it to prevent surface contamination and drying, and by putting it in a 35°F (1.7°C) refrigerator with an airflow of more than 1,000 feet/minute. This is done by placing the pans of food about a 4-inch distance from a commercial fan. Food can also be cooled quickly by placing it in an ice bath, potable ice water, liquid or solid CO2, or liquid nitrogen. However, research has shown that if food is cooled continuously from the temperature of 130 to 45°F (54.4 to 7.2°C) in less than 15 hours, it will be safe. Note: FDA recommendation is to cool food continuously from 140 to 41 °F (60 to 5°C) within 6 hours. However, this is not necessary for safety.
Refrigeration unit(s) shall not be overcrowded or improperly loaded so as to obstruct or disrupt the cooling circulation patterns.
2. Storage to prevent cross-contamination. Raw food shall be stored underneath prepared food to prevent drippings from the raw food from contaminating the prepared food. Another alternative is to store these foods in separate racks of the refrigerator or in separate refrigeration units.
3. Storage time. Food spoilage microorganisms will continue to multiply and reduce the quality of food during refrigerated storage. Food shall be used up according to the maximum safe times-temperatures shown in the table, Maximum Holding Times at Specified Temperatures.
4. Storage containers. Single-use items such as plastic bread bags, seamed metal cans, ketchup bottles, crimped aluminum pie tins, and glass jars shall not be reused after original contents have been removed. Food (particularly high-acid food) shall never be stored, prepared, and cooked or processed in containers or pipes that contain toxic materials such as galvanized metal, chipped enamelware, lead and lead glazes, or copper or copper tubing.
5. Leftovers. Leftovers shall be minimized. A tabulation of the number of customers served or items sold will be used to forecast the amount of food to prepare. Progressive food preparation shall be used to minimize leftovers whenever possible.
Leftover food shall be cooled from 130 to 45°F in less than 15 hours (safety) [from 140°F to less than 41°F, FDA Food Code recommendations in 6 hours or less]. Cooked, pasteurized leftovers that have a pH of less than 4.6 or aw of less than 0.86 are not hazardous foods.
6. Unwrapped food. Unwrapped food shall be discarded after it has been served once to a customer. In hospital food service, all unwrapped food returned on trays must be discarded.
Food that is still packaged and in sound condition may be re-served.
7. Work station cleanliness. Work stations shall be clean and orderly, and free from debris and spilled food. Crumbs must not be swept onto the floor; they must be swept onto a plate or tray. Work stations shall be kept clean with detergent and water-soaked towels as necessary, and must be wiped down with a sanitizing solution after each meal.
8. Frequency of surface sanitizing. Soiled eating areas shall be cleared promptly and cleaned with a detergent solution. Tables and counter surfaces should be sanitized every 4 hours or at the end of the meal to prevent bacterial build-up and to maintain professional food process standards. Tables in the dining room shall be washed with a mild detergent solution, sanitized, and polished with a dry cloth.
9. Serving utensils and cutting boards. Serving utensils in serving systems shall be kept in hot [above 140°F (60°C)] or in cold food; kept dry and clean or washed to prevent more than a 10-generation multiplication of bacterial pathogens, according to the table, Maximum Holding Times at Specified Temperatures; or stored in a dipper well with flowing cold water. Cutting boards used for serving hot, cooked food on display shall be cleaned and sanitized at least every 4 hours.
10. Beverage dispensing equipment. All beverage-dispensing equipment shall be cleaned regularly according to the manufacturer's instructions. The dispensing unit shall be taken apart daily (or at a frequency that controls pathogenic bacterial multiplication to less than 10 generations), cleaned, and sanitized to prevent bacterial, yeast, and mold build-up.
11. Milk product dispensers. Milk and milk product dispensers shall be cleaned and sanitized to limit pathogenic bacterial multiplication to less than 10 generations. Particular attention must be given to gaskets and O-rings. Milk dispensing tubes (spouts) must not be longer than 3/4 inch and must be cut at a 45° angle that permits complete drainage. The plastic sleeve around the tube must be removed.
12. Dispensing tableware and flatware. Tableware and flatware (both multiple use and single service) shall be dispensed in a sanitary manner so that surfaces that come into contact with food or the mouth are protected from contamination. Handles of flatware shall be presented to the user. Sanitary straw dispensers will be used for dispensing straws, or wrapped straws shall be used. Sanitary, disposable cup dispensers shall be used for customer service.
13. Self-service food, dishes, and utensils. Customers must not be allowed to reuse single-service or multi-use plates, bowls, tableware, etc. when obtaining additional food from the salad bar or buffet. A sign shall be posted at the buffet or service line that gives customers appropriate instructions, or customers will be given oral instructions. Customers shall be given a clean dish, and their dirty plate or dish should then be taken to the dishwashing area. Properly designed, constructed, and installed protective shields or other approved devices shall be provided to protect food from consumer contamination. Food in the self-service display units shall be arranged so that customers do not have to reach over the food.
14. Table condiments. All condiment containers shall be clean and uncontaminated, and shall be replaced if they appear to be below standard. Individually portioned condiments shall be provided for table service or counter service. Condiment bins shall be kept clean. Commercially packed condiment containers shall not be refilled. The ingredients in partially filled condiment containers will be sent to the kitchen for use in cooking when it is time to clean the containers.
15. Ice scoops. In order to avoid hard foreign object hazards, plastic or metal scoops shall be used to dispense frozen food or ice. Glass drinking containers shall not be used as scoops. Ice scoops are stored in ice with handles out of the ice or in an ice scoop holder. Ice buckets shall be filled in a sanitary manner.
16. Food serving temperatures. All foods served to customers shall be above 140°F (60°C)] or below 41°F (5°C) when they leave the service area.
The following enclosures can be used to monitor and develop safe recipe procedures and resultant food products.
Quality Assured HACCP Recipe Procedure (Section VI, encl. 1)
New Product - Process Development (Section VI, encl. 2)
Product Specification (Section VI, encl. 3)
1. Consumer information. Consumers (customers) shall be given information about the food(s) they purchase whenever appropriate for foodborne illness prevention and whenever requested. Therefore, customers should be warned to consume hot take-out food that is not above 130°F (54.4°C) in less than 2 hours and to refrigerate the leftovers <2 inches thick. [When customers take hot food home from a food market or restaurant, the spores of C. botulinum, B. cereus, and C. perfringens are in the food and, if the food cools to less than 130°F (54.4°C), the spores of these bacterial pathogens can begin to grow. It is common for this to happen in take-home food.] Customers will be warned to keep cold food items cold and to consume these foods within a safe time period, according to the table, Maximum Holding Times at Specified Temperatures, and to discard the unused portion at the end of that time. To prevent possible allergic reactions in some people, customers shall be given information concerning ingredients in food items, if they request this information.
2. Product complaints are an important indicator of possible deficiencies of preparation controls and the distribution handling procedures. It is therefore necessary to have an effective system for handling and investigating complaints whereby:
Juneja, V.K., Snyder, O.P., and Cygnarowicz-Provost, M. 1994. Influence of cooling rate on outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens spores in cooked ground beef. J. Food Protect. 57(12):1063-1067.
Written by: Date:
|Portion size (vol./wt.):
Number of portions:
Final yield (AS):
SA/QA by: Date:
To be prepared by:
(weight or volume)
Pre-preparation Time / Initials
Ingredients that could produce possible allergic reactions
1. Recipe testing
2. Microbiological challenge testing
3. Shelf life studies
4. Ingredient purchasing specification
5. Documentation review
Validation of each step in development
2. Roll out
General: (Include picture of product)
Expected hazards levels/size
Temperature and time for safe holding
To Section V
To Section VII