References
  1. Abeyta, C.  1983.  Bacteriological quality of fresh seafood products from Seattle retail markets.  J. Food Prot. 46: 901-909.
  2. Abeyta, C., Weagant, S.D., Kaysner, C.A., Wekell, M.M., Stott, R.F., Krane, M.H., and Peeler,  J.T.  1989.  Aeromonas hydrophila in shellfish growing waters: Incidence and media evaluation.  J. Food Prot. 52:7-12.
  3. Ahmed, A.A-H., Moustafa, M.K., and Marth, E.H.  1983.  Incidence of Bacillus cereus in milk and some milk products.  J. Food Prot. 46: 126-128.
  4. Ajinomoto U.S.A. Inc.  1991.  For the best flavor and important dollar savings…use just the recommended amount of Aji-no-moto.  Ajinomoto U.S.A. Inc.,  9 West 57th Street, New York, N.Y.
  5. Ak, N. O., Cliver, D. O. and Kaspar, C. W.  1994.  Cutting boards of plastic and wood contaminated experimentally with bacteria.  J.  Food Prot. 57: 16-22.
  6. Ak, N. O., Cliver, D. O. and Kaspar, C. W.  1994.  Decontamination of plastic and wooden cutting boards for kitchen use.  J.  Food Prot. 57: 23-30.
  7. Angelotti, R., Foter, M. J., and Lewis, K. H.  1961a.  Time-temperature effects on Salmonellae and Staphylococci in Foods.  I.  Behavior in refrigerated foods.  II.  Behavior at warm holding temperatures.  Am J. Pub. Health 51: 83.
  8. Angelotti, R., Foter, M. J., and Lewis, K. H.  1961b.  Time-temperature effects on Salmonellae and Staphylococci in Foods.  III.  Thermal death time studies.  Appl. Microbiol. 9: 308-315.
  9. Asplund, K.  and Nurmi, E.  1991.  The growth of salmonellae in tomatoes.  Int. J. Food Microbiol. 12: 177-182.
  10. Bailey, J. S., Fletcher, D. L., and Cox, N. A.  1989.  Recovery and serotype distribution of Listeria monocytogenes from broiler chickens in the southeastern United States.  J. Food Prot. 52: 148-150.
  11. Baker, S. P. and Fisher, R. S.  1980.  Childhood asphyxiation by choking or suffocation.  J. Am. Med. Assoc. 244 (12): 1343-1346.
  12. Bauer, F. T., Carpenter, J. A., and Reagan, J. O.  1981.  Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in pork during processing.  J. Food Prot. 44: 279-283.
  13. Bauman, H. E.  1974.  The HACCP concept and microbiological hazard categories.  Food Technol.  28: 30, 32, 34, 78.
  14. Bean, N. H., Griffin, P. M., Goulding, J. S., and Ivey, C. B.  1990.  Foodborne disease outbreaks, 5-year summary, 1983-1987.  MMWR.  39 (SS-1): 15-57.
  15. Bennett, J. V., Scott, D. H., Rogers, M. F., and Solomon, S. L.  1987.  Infectious and parasitic diseases.  In the Burden of Unnecessary Illness.  Amler, R.W. and Dull, H.B.  Oxford Univ. Press.  New York, NY.
  16. Bergdoll, M. D.  1989.  Staphylococcus aureus.  In Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens.  Doyle, M.P. ed.  pp. 463-523.   Marcel Dekker.  New York, NY.
  17. Beuchat, L. R.  1982.  Vibrio parahaemolyticus: Public health significance.  Food Technol. 36(3): 80.
  18. Beuchat, L. R. and Worthington, R. E.  1976.  Relationship between heat resistance and phospholipid fatty acid composition of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 31: 80-83.
  19. Blankenship, L. C., and Craven, S. E.  1982.  Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken meats as a function of temperature.  Appl. Microbiol. 44: 88-92.
  20. Bradshaw, J. G., Peeler, J. T., and Twedt, R. M.  1977.  Thermal inactivation of ileal loop-reactive Clostridium perfringens type A strains in phosphate buffer and beef gravy.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34: 280-284.
  21. Bradshaw, J. G., Peeler, J. T., Coorwing, J. J., Hunt, J. M., Tierney, J., Larken, E. P., and Twedt, R. M.  1985.  Thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in milk.  J. Food Prot. 48:743-745.
  22. Bryan, F. L., Bartelson, C. A., and Christopherson, N.  1981.  Hazard analyses, in reference to Bacillus cereus, of boiled and fried rice in Cantonese-style restaurants.  J. Food Prot. 44:500-512.
  23. Buchanan, R. L., Stahl, H. G., Bencivengo, M. M., and Del Coral, F.  1989.  Comparison of lithium chloride-phenylethano-moxalactam and modified Vogel Johnson agars for detection of Listeria spp in retail-level meats, poultry, and seafood.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:559-603.
  24. Callister, A. M., and Agger, W. A.  1987.  Enumeration and characterization of  Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas caviae isolated from grocery store produce.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:249-253.
  25. Cann, D. C., Wilson, B. B., Hobbs, G. and Shewan, J. M.   1965.  The growth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum Type E in certain vacuum packed fish.  J. Appl. Bact. 28 (3):431-436.
  26. Carnevale, R. A. and Sachs, S.  1991.  Counting down on residues.  FSIS Food Safety Review.  US Dept. of Agriculture.  Fall 1(2); 4-6.
  27. CAST (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology). 1994.  Foodborne pathogens: Risks and consequences.  Task Force Report No. 122.  CAST, 4420 West Lincoln Way, Ames, IA.
  28. Christopher, F. M., Smith, G. C., and Vanderzant, C.  1982.  Examination of poultry giblets, raw milk and meat for Campylobacterfetus subsp. jejuni.  J. Food Prot. 45:260-262.
  29. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).  1995.  Title 9.  Animal and Animal Products.  200 to end. 318.17.  Superintendent of Documents.  U.S. Govt. Printing Office.  Washington, D.C.
  30. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).  1995.  Title 21.  Food and Drugs.  Parts 100 to 169.  Superintendent of Documents.  U.S. Govt. Printing Office.  Washington, D.C.
  31. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).  1995.  Title 21.  Food and Drugs.  Parts 170 to 199.  Superintendent of Documents.  U.S. Govt. Printing Office.  Washington, D.C.
  32. Codex Alimentarius Commission.  1981  Procedural Manual, 5th edition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / World Health Organization.  Rome.
  33. Colburn, K. G., Kaysner, C. A., Wekel, M. M., Matches, J. R., Abeyta, C. and Stott, R. F.  1989.  Microbiological quality of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and water of live holding tanks in Seattle, WA markets.  J. Food Prot. 52: 100-104.
  34. Crosby, P. B.  1979.  Quality is free.  McGraw-Hill Book Company.  New York.
  35. Davidson, R. J., Sprung, D. W., Park, C. E., and Rayman, M. K.  1989.  Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica in Manitoba raw milk.  Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 22: 70-74.
  36. Delmas, C. L., and Vidon, D. J. M.  1985.  Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica and related species from foods in France.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: 767:771.
  37. Denny, C. B.  1971.  Effect of toxin concentration on the inactivation of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in beef bouillion and in phosphate buffer.  Appl. Microbiol. 21: 1064-1066
  38. Doyle, M. P. and Roman, D. J.  1981.  Growth and survival of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni as a function of temperature and pH.  J. Food Prot. 44(8): 596-601.
  39. Doyle, M. P. and Schoeni, J. L.  1987.  Isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from retail fresh meats and poultry.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53: 2394-2396.
  40. Duitschaever, C. L. and Buteau, C.  1979  Incidence of Salmonella in pork and poultry products.  J. Food Prot. 42:662-663.
  41. Dunsmore, D. G. , Twomey, A., Whittlesone, W. G., and Morgan, H. W.  1981.  Design and performance of systems for cleaning product-contact surface of food equipment: A review.  J. Food Prot. 44: 230-240.
  42. DuPont, H. L., Formal, S. B., Hornick, R. B., Snyder, M. J., Libonati, J. P., Sheahan, D. G., LaBrec, E. H., and Kalas, J. P. 1971.  Pathogenesis of Escherichia coli diarrhea.  N. Engl. J. Med. 285: 1-9.
  43. DuPont, H. L., Hornick, R. B., Dawkins, A. T., Snyder, M. J., and Formal, S. B.  1969.  The response of man to virulent Shigella flexneri 2a. J. Infect. Dis. 119: 296-299.
  44. DuPont, H. L., Hornick, R. B., Snyder, M. J., Libonati, J. P., Formal, S. B., and Gangarosa, E. J. 1972.  Immunity in shigellosis.  II.  Protection induced by oral live vaccine or primary infection.  J. Infect. Dis. 125: 12-16.
  45. Ellender, R. D., Mapp, J. P., Middlebrooks, B. L., Cook, D. W., and Cake, E. W.  1980.  Natural enterovirus and fecal coliform contamination of Gulf Coast oysters.  J. Food Prot. 43: 105-110.
  46. Farber, J. M  1995. Letter.  Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
  47. Farber, J. M., and Mayers, P. R.  1994.  Compliance policy for L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods.  Prophylaxis 7(2) Summer.
  48. Farber, J. M., and Peterkin, P. I.  1991. Listeria monocytogenes: a foodborne pathogen.. Microbiol. Rev. 55: 476-511.
  49. Farber, J. M., Coates, F. and Daley, E.  1992.  Minimum water activity requirements for the growth of Listeria monocytogenes.  Letters in App. Microbiol. 15: 103-105.
  50. Farber, J. M., Malcom, S. A., Weiss, K. F., and Johnston, M. A.  1988.  Microbiological quality of fresh and frozen breakfast type sausages sold in Canada.  J. Food Prot.  51: 397-401.
  51. Farber, J. M., Sanders, G. W., and Johnston, M. A.  1989.  A survey of various foods for the presence of Listeria species. J. Food Prot. 52: 456-458.
  52. FDA (Food and Drug Administration).  1989.  Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended and Related Laws,  HHS Publication No. (FDA) 89-1050, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD.
  53. FDA (Food and Drug Administration).  1992.  Bacteriological Analytical Manual.  7th edition.  AOAC International.  Arlington, VA.
  54. FDA (Food and Drug Administration).  1993.  HACCP.  Regulatory Food Applications in Retail Food Establishments.  Dept. of Health and Human Services.  Division of Human Resource Development,  HFC-60:  Rockville, MD.
  55. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) / Public Health Service.  1995.  Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance.  Pub. No. 229.  Washington, D.C.
  56. FDA (Food and Drug Administration).  1995.  Food Code.  U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce.  Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service.  Pub. No. PB95-265492CEH.  Springfield, VA.
  57. FDA (Food and Drug Administration).  1995.  Monosodium Glutamate.  FDA Backgrounder. August 31.
  58. FDA (Food and Drug Administration).  1997.  Food Code.  U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services.  Pub. No. PB97-141204.  Washington, D.C.
  59. Food Research Institute. 1995.  Food Safety 1995.  Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
  60. Foster, G. M. and Kaferstein, F. K.  1985   Food safety and the behavioral sciences.  Soc. Sci. Med.   21(11):1273-1277.
  61. Frasier, M. B. and Koburger, J. A.  1984.  Incidence of Salmonella in clams and oysters, crabs and mullet.  J. Food Prot. 47: 343-345.
  62. Frazer, A. M. and Matthews, M. E.  1990.  Effectiveness of cold-holding methods in foodservice operations.  J. Food Prot. 53: 336-340.
  63. Fricker, C. R. and Tompsett, S.  1989.  Aeromonas spp. in foods: A significant cause of food poisoning?  Int. J. Food Microbiol. 9: 17-23.
  64. Fuchs, A and Bonde, G. J.  1957.  The nutritional requirements of Clostridium perfringens.  J. Gen. Microbiol.  34: 280-284.
  65. Garcia, M. M., Lior, H., Stewart, R. B., Ruckerbauer, G. M., Trudel, J. R. R., and Skliarevski, A.  1985.  Isolation, characterization and serotyping of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from slaughter cattle.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49: 667:672.
  66. Genigeorgis, C. A., Dutulescu, D., and Garayzabal, J. F.  1990.  Prevalence of Listeria spp. in turkey meat at the supermarket and slaughter level.  J. Food Prot. 53: 282-288.
  67. Genigeorgis, C. A., Oanca, P., and Dutulescu, D. 1989.  Prevalence of Listeria spp. in poultry meat at the supermarket and slaughter level.  J. Food Prot. 52: 618-624.
  68. Gerba, C. P., and Goyal, S. M.  1978.  Detection and occurrence of enteric viruses in shellfish: A review.  J. Food Prot. 41: 743-754.
  69. Goepfert, J. M. and Biggie, R. A.  1968.  Heat resistance of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella senftenberg 775W in milk chocolate.  Appl. Microbiol. 16:1939-1940.
  70. Goodfellow, S. J. and Brown, W. L.  1978.  Fate of Salmonella inoculated into beef for cooking.  J. Food Prot. 41: 598-685.
  71. Gorham, J. R. 1994.  Hard foreign objects in food as a cause of injury and disease: A review.  (Chapter 7) in Food borne Disease. 3rd edition.  Marcel Dekker.  New York, NY.  pp. 615-626.
  72. Goyal, S. M., Gerba, C.P., and Melnick, J. L.  1979.  Human enteroviruses in oysters and their overlying water.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37: 572-581.
  73. Grau, F. H. and Vanderline, P. B.  1990.  Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on vacuum packaged beef.  J. Food Prot.  53(9): 739-741, 746.
  74. Griffiths, J. K. and Keusch, G. T.  1992. Shigella, infection and immunity.  In Encylopedia of Immunology.  I. M. Roitt and Delves, P. J. eds.  Academic Press.  San Diego, CA.  pp. 1371-1373.
  75. Hackney, C. R., Ray, B., and Speck, M. L.  1980.  Incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in and the microbiological quality of seafood in North Carolina.  J. Food Prot. 43: 769-773.
  76. Halpin-Dohnalek, M. I., and Marth, E. H.  1989. Staphylococcus aureus: Production of extracellular compounds and behavior in foods. - A review.  J. Food Prot. 52 (4): 267-284.
  77. Hanna, M. O., Stewart, J. C., Carpenter, Z. I., and Vanderzant, C.  1977.  Effect of heating, freezing, and pH on Yersinia enterocolitica-like organisms from meat.  J. Food Prot. 40: 689-692.
  78. Harris, C. S., Baker, S. P., Smith, G. A., and Harris, R. M.  1984.  Childhood asphyxiation by food.  J. Am. Med. Assoc.. 251 (17): 2231-2235.
  79. Hauschild, A. H. W.  1989.  Clostridium botulinum.  In Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Doyle, M.P., ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
  80. Hauschild, A. H. W. and Hilsheimer, R.  1980.  Incidence of Clostridium botulinum in commercial bacon.  J. Food Prot. 43: 564-565.
  81. Hauschild, A. H. W. and Hilsheimer, R.  1983.  Prevalence of Clostridium botulinum in commercial liver sausage.  J. Food Prot. 46: 242-244.
  82. Health Protection Branch Canada.  1996.  Food and Waterborne Disease in Canada, Annual Disease Summaries 1988 and 1989.  Health Canada.  Ontario, Canada.
  83. Hobbs, B. C.  1960.  Staphylococcal and Clostridium welchi food poisoning.  Roy. Soc. Health J.  80: 267-271.
  84. Hood, A. M., Pearson, A. D., and Shahamat, M.  1988.  The extent of surface contamination of retailed chickens with Campylobacter jejuni serogroups.  Epidem. Inf. 100: 17-25.
  85. Hormaeche, C. E.  1992. Salmonella, infection and immunity.  In Encylopedia of Immunology.  I. M. Roitt and Delves, P. J. eds.  Academic Press.  San Diego, CA.  pp. 1350-1352.
  86. Hornick, R. B., Greisman, S. E., Woodward, T. E., DuPont, H. L., Dawkins, A. T., and Snyder, M. J.  1970.  Typhoid fever:  Pathogenesis and immunologic control.  New Engl. J. Med.  283: 686-691.
  87. Hornick, R. B., Music, S. I., Wenzel, R., Cash, R., Libonati, J. P., Snyder, M. J., and Woodward, T. E. 1971.  The broad street pump revisited:  Response of volunteer to ingested cholera vibrios.  Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med. [2]47: 1181.
  88. Hudson, J. A., Mott, S. J., and Penney, N.  1994.  Growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterocolitica on vacuum and saturated carbon dioxide controlled atmosphere-packaged sliced roast beef.  J. Food Prot. 57 (3): 204-208.
  89. Hyman, F. N., Klontz, K. C., and Tollefson, L.  1993.  Food and Drug Administration surveillance of the role of foreign objects in foodborne injuries.  Public Health Reports. 108: 54-59.
  90. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) 1988.  Microorganisms in Foods 4.  Application of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system to ensure microbiological  safety and quality.  Blackwell Scientific Publications.  Oxford.
  91. Irving, W. I. 1992.  Hepatitis A virus, infection and immunity. In Encylopedia of Immunology.  I. M. Roitt and Delves, P. J. eds.  Academic Press.  San Diego, CA.  pp. 660-661.
  92. Izat, A. L., Druggers, C. D., Colberg, M., Reiber, M. A., and Adams, M. H.  1989.  Comparison of the DNA probe to culture methods for the detection of Salmonella on poultry carcasses and processing waters.  J. Food Protect. 52: 564-570.
  93. Jay, J. M.  1992.  Microbiological food safety.  Critical Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 31(3): 177-190.
  94. Jay, J. M.  1996.  Modern Food Microbiology.  Fifth edition.  Chapman & Hall Inc., New York, NY.
  95. Johnson, K. M.  1986.  Personal communication.
  96. Johnson, K. M., Nelson, C. L., and Busta, F. F.  1983.  Influence of temperature on germination and growth of spores of emetic and diarrheal strains of Bacillus cereus in a growth medium and in rice.  J. Food Sci.  48: 286-287.
  97. Jones, J. M.  1992. Food additives in  Food Safety.  Chapter 10.  pp. 203-258.  Eagan Press.  St. Paul, MN.
  98. Juneja, V.K., Snyder, O. P., and Cygnarowicz-Provost, M.  1994.  Influence of cooling rate on outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens spores in cooked ground beef.  J. Food Prot. 57(12): 1063-1067.
  99. Juneja, V. K., Snyder. O. P., and Marmer, B. S.  1997.  Thermal destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef and chicken:  determination of D- and z- values.  Internat. J. Food Microbiol.  35: 231-237.
  100. Juneja, V. K., Snyder, O. P., Williams, A. C., and Marmer, B. S.  1997.  Thermal destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in hamburger.  J. Food Prot. 60(10): 1163-1166.
  101. Jung, M., Stomberg, L., Redondo Fernandez, D., Crespo, I., and Snyder, O. P.  1995.  A food safety survey of eleven food service operations in the Minneapolis / St. Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area.  Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management.  St. Paul, MN.
  102. Kane, V. E.  1989.  Defect prevention - Use of simple statistical tools.  Chapter 7.  Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
  103. Kautter, D. A., Lilly, T., Solomon, H. M., and Lynt, R. K.  1982. Clostridium botulinum spores in infant foods: A survey.  J. Food Prot. 45: 1028-1029.
  104. Khalifa, K. I., Werner, B., and Timperi, R.  1986.  Non-detection of enteroviruses in shellfish collected from legal shellfish beds in Massachusetts.  J. Food Prot.  49: 971-973.
  105. Kinde, H., Genigeorgis, C. A., and Pappaioanou, M.  1983.  Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken wings.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol.  45: 1116-1118.
  106. Koidis, P. and Doyle, M. P.  1983.  Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in fresh and heated red meat.  J. Food Prot. 46: 771-774.
  107. Kokubo, Y and Matsumoto, M., Terada, A., Saito, M., Shinagawa, K., Konuma, H., and Kurata, H.  1986.  The incidence of clostridia in cooked meat products in Japan.  J. Food Prot. 49: 864-867.
  108. Konuma, H.K., Shinagawa, K., Tokumaru, M., Onoue, Y., Konno, J.S., Fujino, N., Shigahisa, T., Kurata, H., Kuwabara, Y., and Lopes, C. A. M.  1988.  Occurrence of Bacillus cereus in meat products, raw meat and meat product additives.  J. Food Prot. 51: 324-326.
  109. Kramer, J. M., and Gilbert, R. J.  1989.  Bacillus cereus and other Bacillus species. In Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Doyle, M.P., ed.  Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
  110. Labbe, R.  1989.  Clostridium perfringens.  In Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Doyle, M.P., ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
  111. Lammerding, A. M., Garcia, M. M., Mann, E. D., Robinson, Y., Dorward, W. J., Truscott, R. B., and Tittiger, F.  1988.  Prevalence of Salmonella and thermophilic Campylobacter in fresh pork, beef, veal and poultry in Canada.  J. Food Prot.  51: 47-52.
  112. Levine, M. M., DuPont, H. L., Formal, S. B., Hornick, R. B., Takeuchi, A., Gangarosa, E. J., Snyder, M. J., and Libonati, J. P. 1973.  Pathogenesis of Shigella dysenteriae I (Shiga) dysentery.  J. Infect. Dis. 127: 261-270.
  113. Liewen, M. B. and Plautz, M. W.  1988.  Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk in Nebraska.  J. Food Prot. 51: 840-841.
  114. Lillard, H. S.,  Hamm, D., and Thomson, J. E.  1984.  Effect of reduced processing on recovery of foodborne pathogens from hot-boned broiler meat and skin.  J. Food Prot. 47: 209-212.
  115. Lovett, J., 1989.  Listeria monocytogenes.  In Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens.  Doyle, M. P., ed.  Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
  116. Lovett, J., Bradshaw, J.G., and Peeler, J. T.  1982.  Thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica in milk.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44: 517-519.
  117. Lovett, J., Francis, D. W., and Hunt, J. W.  1987. Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk: Detection, incidence, and pathogenicity.  J. Food Prot. 50: 188-192.
  118. Lynt, R. K., Kautter, D. A. and Solomon, H. M.  1982.  Differences and similarities among proteolytic and nonproteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum Types A. B,  E, and F: A review.  J. Food Prot. 45(5): 466-474.
  119. Madden, R. H., Hough, B., and Gillespie, C. W.  1986.  Occurrence of Salmonella in porcine liver in Northern Ireland.  J. Food Prot. 49:893-894.
  120. Mafu, A. A., Higgins, R., Nadeau, M., and Cousineau, G.  1989.  The incidence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Yersinia enterocolitica in swine carcasses and the slaughterhouse environment.  J. Food Prot. 52: 642-645.
  121. Magee, P. N.  1983.  Nitrate.  pp.198-210 in:  Environmental Aspects of Cancer.  The Role of Macro and Micro Components of Foods.  Wynder, E. L., Leveille, G. A., Weisburger, J. H., and Livingston, G.E. eds. Food and Nutrition Press.  Westport, CT.
  122. Matches, J. R. and Liston, J.  1968.  Low temperature growth of Salmonella.  J. Food Sci.  33:641.
  123. Matthews, M. E.  1991.  Safety issues related to use of take-out food.  J. Foodservice Systems.  6: 41-59.
  124. McCullough, M. B., and Eisele, C. W. 1951.  Experimental human salmonellosis.  I.  Pathogenicity of strains of Salmonella meleagridis and Salmonella anatum obtained from spray-dried whole egg.  J. Infect. Dis.  88: 278-279.
  125. McCullough, M. B., and Eisele, C. W. 1951.  Experimental human salmonellosis.  III.  Pathogenicity of strains of Salmonella newport, Salmonella derby, and Salmonella bareilly obtained from spray-dried whole egg.  J. Infect. Dis.  89: 209-213.
  126. McCullough, M. B., and Eisele, C. W. 1951.  Experimental human salmonellosis.  IV.  Pathogenicity of strains of Salmonella pullorum obtained from spray-dried whole egg.  J. Infect. Dis.  89: 259-265.
  127. McEwen, S. A., Martin, S. W., Clarke, R. C., and Tamblyn, S. E.  1988.  A prevalence survey of Salmonella in raw milk in Ontario, 1986-1987.  J. Food Prot. 51: 963-965.
  128. McManus, C. and Lanier, J. M.  1987.  Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, and Yersinia enterocolitica in raw milk.  J. Food Prot. 50: 51-55.
  129. Mittleman, R. E. and Wetli, C. V.  1982.  The fatal cafe coronary.  J. Am. Med. Assoc.  247 (9): 1285-1288.
  130. Mosso, A., Arribas, L. G., Cuena, J. A., and de la Rosa, C.  1989.  Enumeration of Bacillus and Bacillus cereus spores in food from Spain.  J. Food Prot. 52: 184-188.
  131. Moustafa, M. K., Ahmed, A. A-H., and Marth, E. H.  1983.  Occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica in raw and pasteruized milk.  J. Food Prot. 46: 276-278.
  132. Moustafa, M. K., Ahmed, A. A-H., and Marth, E. H. 1983.  Behavior of virulent Yersinia enterocolitica during manufacture and storage of colby-like cheese.  J. Food Prot.  46: 318-320.
  133. Nagle, N.  1997.  Dole Inc.  Private communication.
  134. National Academy of Science.  1985.  An Evaluation of the Role of Microbiological Criteria for Foods and Food Ingredients.  Food Protection Committee.  Subcommittee on Microbiological Criteria.  NAS.  National Research Council.  National Academic Press.  Washington, D.C.
  135. National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF).  1998.  Hazard analysis and critical control point principles and application guidelines.  J. Food Prot.  61(9): 1246-1259.
  136. National Science Foundation.  1994.  Food Service Refrigerators and Storage Freezers.  No. 7.  NSF.  Ann Arbor, MI.
  137. Newell, D.  1992.  Campylobacter, infection and immunity.  In Encylopedia of Immunology.  I. M. Roitt and Delves, P. J. eds.  Academic Press.  San Diego, CA.  pp. 272-273.
  138. Newsome, R. L.  1988.  Staphylococcus aureus.  Food Technol.  42(4): 194-195.
  139. Norberg, P.  1981.  Enteropathogenic bacteria in frozen chicken.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 42: 32-34.
  140. Palumbo, S. A., Maxion, F., Williams, A. C., Buchanan, R. L., and Thayer, D. W.  1985.  Starch-ampicillin agar for the quantitative detection of Aeromonas hydrophila.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: 1027-1030.
  141. Pether, J.  V.  S. and Scott, R. J. D.  1982. Salmonella carriers: are they dangerous?  A study to identify finger contamination with salmonellae by convalescent carriers.  J. Infect. 5: 81-88.
  142. Pflug, I. J. and Blaisdell, J. L.  1963.  Methods of analysis of pre-cooling data.  ASHRAE J.  5(11): 133.
  143. Pflug, I. J., Blaisdell, J. L., and Kopelman, I. J.  1965.  Developing temperature-time curves for objects that can be approximated by sphere, infinite plate, or infinite cylinder.  ASHRAE Transactions.  Part i.  71: 238.
  144. Pillsbury Company.  1973.  Food Safety Through the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System.  The Pillsbury Co.  Minneapolis, MN.
  145. Pivnick, H., Erdman, I. E., Manzatiuk, S., and Pommier, E.  1968.  Growth of food poisoning bacteria on barbecued chicken.  J. Milk Food Technol.  31: 198-201.
  146. Proceedings of the 1971 Conference on Food Protection.  1972.  U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
  147. Ratkowsky, D. A., Lowry, R. K., McMeekin, T. A., Stokes, A. N., and Chandler, R. E.  1983.  Model for bacterial culture growth rate throughout the entire biokinetic temperature range.  J. Bacteriol. 154(3):1222-1226.
  148. Rayes,  H. M., Genigeorgis, C. A., and Farver, T. B.  1983.  Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in vacuum packaged processed turkey.  J. Food Prot. 46: 292-294.
  149. Read, R. B. and Bradshaw,  J. G.  1966.  Staphylococcal enterotoxin B thermal inactivation in milk.  J. Dairy Science.  49(2): 202-203.
  150. Read, S. C., Gyles, C. L., Clarke, R. C., Lior, H., and McEwen, S.  1990.  Prevalence of vercytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in ground beef, pork, and chicken in southwestern Ontario.  Epidemiol. Infect. 105:11-20.
  151. Reymond, D., Johnson, R. P., Karmali, M. A., Petric, M., Winkler, M., Johnson, S., Rahn, K., Renwick, S., Wilson, J., Clarke, R. C., and Spika, J.  1996.  Neutralizing antibodies to Escherichia coli vero cytotoxin 1 and antibodies to O157 lipopolysaccharide in healthy farm family members and urban residents.  J. Clin. Microbiol.  34: 2053-2057.
  152. Riemann, H.  1968.  Effect of water activity on the heat resistance of Salmonella in 'dry' materials.  Appl. Microbiol.  16:1621-1622.
  153. Riemann, H., and Bryan, F. L.  1979  Foodborne Infections and Intoxications.  2nd edition.  p. 625.  Academic Press.  New York, NY.
  154. Roberts, T.  1990.  1987 Bacterial foodborne illness costs in the USA.  Food Laboratory News, 19 (Mar.): 53.
  155. Roberts, T., and van Ravenswaay, E.  1989.  The economics of safe guarding the U.S. Food Supply.  USDA Ag. Info. Bulletin No. 566: 1-8.
  156. Robinson, D. A. 1981.  Infective dose of Campylobacter jejuni in milk.  Brit. Med. J. 282: 1584.
  157. Rodriguez, M. H. and Barrett, E. L.  1986.  Changes in microbial population and growth of Bacillus cereus during storage of reconstituted dry milk.  J. Food Prot. 49: 680-686.
  158. Rosenow, E. M., and Marth, E. H. 1987.  Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in skim, whole and chocolate milk, and in whipping cream during incubation at 4ºC, 8ºC, 13ºC, 21ºC, and 35ºC  J. Food Prot. 50: 452-459.
  159. Roy, R. J., Busta, F. F., and Thompson, D. R.  1981.  Thermal inactivation Clostridium perfringens after growth at several constant and linearly rising temperatures.  J. Food Sci. 46: 1586-1591.
  160. Schiemann, D. A.  1980.  Isolation of toxigenic Yersinia enterocolitica from retail pork products.  J. Food Prot. 43: 360-365.
  161. Schneusner, D. L., Hood, L. L., and Harmon, L. G.  1973.  Effect of temperature and pH on growth and enterotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus.  J. Milk Food Technol. 36: 249-252.
  162. Shanker, S., Rosenfield, J. A., Davey, G. R.,  and Sorrel, T. C.  1982. Campylobacter jejuni: Incidence in processed broilers and biotype distribution in human and broiler isolates.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43: 1219-1220.
  163. Shaughnessy, H. J., Olsson, R. C., Bass, K., Friewer, F., and Levinson, S. O.  1946.  Experimental human bacillary dysentery. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 132: 362-368.
  164. Shoemaker, S. P. and Pierson, M. D.  1976.  "Phoenix Phenomenon" in the growth of Clostridium perfringens.  Appl. Microbiol.  32(6): 803-807.
  165. Silliker, J. H.  1982.  Salmonella foodborne illness.  In Microbiological Safety of Foods in Feeding Systems.  Advisory Board on Military Personnel Supplies.  Report 125.  pp. 22-31.
  166. Smelt, J. P. P. M., Raatjes, G. J. M., Crowther, J. S., and Verrips, C. T.  1982.  Growth and toxin formation by Clostridium botulinum at low pH values.  J. Appl. Bacteriol. 52, 75-82.
  167. Smittle, R. B.  1977.  Microbiology of mayonnaise and salad dressing: A review.  J. Food Prot. 40 (6): 415-422.
  168. Snyder, O. P.  1993.  Food Safety Through Quality Assurance Policies, Procedures, and Standards.  Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management (HITM).  St. Paul, MN.
  169. Snyder, O. P.  1994.  HACCP-based safety and quality assured pasteurized-chilled food systems.  Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management (HITM).  St. Paul, MN.
  170. Snyder, O. P.  1996.  Use of time and temperature specifications for holding and storing food in retail food operations.  Dairy Food Environ. Sanitat.  16(6): 374-378.
  171. Snyder, O. P. 1997.  The microbiology of cleaning and sanitizing a cutting board. Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management.  St. Paul, MN.  www.hi-tm.com/Documents/Cutboard.html.
  172. Snyder, O. P.  1997.  Two-inch and four-inch food cooling in a commercial walk-in refrigerator.  Dairy Food Environ. Sanitat. 17 (7):398-404.
  173. Snyder, O. P. 1998.  Hand washing for retail food operations -- A review.  Dairy Food Environ. Sanit.  18(3): 149-162.
  174. Solomon, H. M., Kautter, D. A., Lilly, T., and Rhodehamel, E. J.  1990.  Outgrowth of Clostridium botulinum in shredded cabbage at room temperature under a modified atmosphere.  J. Food Prot. 53(10): 831-833.
  175. Sperber, W. H.  1983.  Influence of water activity on foodborne bacteria - A review.  J. Food Prot.  46: 142-150
  176. Stern, N. J. 1982.  Foodborne pathogens of lesser notoriety:  Viruses, Vibrio, Yersinia, and Campylobacter.  In ABMPS Report No.125.  National Academy of Science Press, Washington, D.C.  pp.57-63.
  177. Stern, N. J., Green, S. S., Thaker, N., Krout, D. J., and Chiu, J.  1984.  Recovery of Campylobacter jejuni from fresh and frozen meat and poultry collected at slaughter.  J. Food Prot. 47: 372-374.
  178. Stern, N. J., Pierson, M. D., and Kotula, A. W.  1980.  Effects of pH and sodium chloride on Yersinia enterocolitica growth at room temperature and refrigeration temperatures.  J. Food Sci. 45: 64-67.
  179. Stier, R. F., and Blumenthal, M. M.  1991. Insurance policy for food safety.  Baking & Snack.  (Feb.): 18-21, 35.
  180. Sumner, S. S., Albrecht, J. A., and Peters, D. L.  1993.  Occurrence of enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and enterotoxin production in bakery products.  J. Food Prot. 56: 722-724.
  181. Svennerholm, A.  1992. Escherchia coli, infection and immunity.  In Encylopedia of Immunology.  I. M. Roitt and Delves, P. J. eds.  Academic Press.  San Diego, CA.  pp. 526-527.
  182. Tatini, S. R.  1973.  Influence of food environments of growth of Staphylococcus aureus and production of various enterotoxins.  J. Milk Food Technol. 36: 559-563.
  183. Taylor, S. L.  1985.  Food allergies. Food Technol. 39 (2): 98-105.
  184. Taylor, S. L. and Bush, R. K. 1986.  Sulfites as food ingredients.  Food Technol. 40(6): 47-52.
  185. Ternstrom, A. and Molin, G. 1987.  Incidence of potential pathogens on raw pork, beef and chicken in Sweden, with special reference to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.  J. Food Prot.  50: 141-146.
  186. Todd, E. C. D.  1989.  Preliminary estimates of costs of foodborne illness in the United States.  J. Food Prot. 52(8): 595-601.
  187. Trussel, M.  1989.  Zum Vorkcommen von Listerien bei der Produktion von Bunderfleisch, Salami, Mettwurst.  Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilk.  131: 409-421.
  188. Tsang, N., Post, L. S. and Solberg, M.  1985.  Growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in model acidified systems.  J. Food Sci.  50: 961-965
  189. Twedt, R. M.  1989.  Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  In Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens.  Doyle, M.P., ed.  Marcel Dekker, Inc.  New York, NY.
  190. US Public Health Service. 1967.  Standard methods for the examination of dairy products: microbiological and chemical.  11th edition.  USPHS Publication 1631.  Washington, D.C.
  191. USDA, FSIS.  1990.  Recommendations of the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods for Refrigeration foods containing cooked, uncured meat or poultry products that are packaged for extended refrigerated shelf life and that are ready-to-eat or prepared with little or no additional heat treatment.  USDA, FSIS, Washington D.C.
  192. van Netten, P., van de Moosdijk, A., van Hoensel, P., Mossel, D. A. A., and Perales, I.  1990.  Psychrotrophic strains of Bacillus cereus producing enterotoxin.  J. Appl. Microbiol.  69: 73-79.
  193. Vaughn, J. M., Landry, E. F., Thomas, M. A., Vicale, T. J., and Panello, W. F.  1990.  Isolation of naturally occurring enteroviruses from a variety of shellfish species residing in Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments.  J. Food Prot.  43: 95-98.
  194. Wait, D. A., Hackney, C. R., Carrick, R. J., Lovelace, G., and Sobsey, M. D.  1983.  Enteric bacterial and viral pathogens and indicator bacteria in hard shell clams.  J. Food Prot. 46: 493-496.
  195. Weagant, S. D., Sado, P. N., Colburn, K. G., Thorkelson, J. D., Stanley, F. A., Krane, M. H., Shields, S. C., and Thayer, C. F.  1988.  The incidence of Listeria species in frozen seafood products. J. Food Prot.  51: 655-657.
  196. Willardsen, R. R., Busta, F. F., Allen, C. E., and Smith, L. B.  1977.  Growth and survival of Clostridium perfringens during constantly rising temperatures.  J. Food Sci.  43: 470.
  197. Willshaw, G. W., Smith, H. R., Roberts, D., Thirwell, J., Cheasty, T., and Rowe, B.  1993.  Examination of raw beef products for the presence of verotoxin producting Escherichia coli, particularly those of serogroup O157:H7.  J. Appl. Bacteriol. 75: 420-426.
  198. Wilson, J. B., Clarke, R .C., Renwick, S. A., Rahn, K., Johnson, R. P., Karmali, M. A.,  Lior, H., Alves, D., Gyles, C. L., Sandhu, K. S., McEwen, S. A., and Spika, J. S.  1996.  Vero cytoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in dairy farm families.  J. Infect. Dis. 174: 1021-1027.
  199. Woodburn, M. J., Somers, E., Rodriguez, J., and Shantz, E. J.  1979.  Heat inactivation rates of botulism toxins A, B, E and F in some foods and buffers.  J. Food Sci. 44: 1658-1661.
  200. World Health Organization (WHO) Division of Food and Nutrition.  1993.  Training considerations for the application of the hazard analysis critical control point system to food processing and manufacturing.  FOS/93.3.  WHO.  Geneva, Switzerland.
  201. Zhuang, R. Y., Beuchat, L. R., and Angulo, F. J.  1995.  Fate of Salmonella montevideo on and in raw tomatoes as affected by temperature and treatment with chlorine.  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:2127-2131.

  202.  

     

    Additional References:

  203. Bryan, F. L.  1982.  Diseases transmitted by foods.  Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control.
  204. Mead, P. S., Slutaker, L., Dietz, V., McCaig, L.F., Bresee, J.S., Shapiro, C., Griffin, P. M., and Tauxe, R. V.  1999.  Food-related illness and death in the United States.  Emerg. Inf. Dis. 5 (5): 606-625.
  205. FDA Food Code. 1999.  U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services.

  206. Pub. No. PB99-115925.  Washington, D.C.
  207. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF).  1980.  Microbial Ecology of Foods.  Vol. 1.  Factors Affecting Life and Death of Microorganisms.  Academic Press.  New York, NY.
  208. Snyder, O.P.  1998.  Assuring safety of egg yolk-based sauces and salad dressings.  Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management.  St. Paul, MN.  (http://www.hi-tm.com/Documents/Mayonnaise.html).

  209. to Section 1
    to Section 2 (part A)
    to Section 2 (part B)
    to Section 3
    to Section 4
    to Section 5 (part A)
    to Section 5 (part B)
    to Section 5 (part C)
    to Section 6 (part A)
    to Section 6 (part B)
    to Section 6 (part C)
    to Section 6 (part D)
    to Section 7
    to Section 8
    to Table of Contents